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Full text of "Annual report of the Metropolitan District Commission"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06544 668 2 



I 



A 



GOVERNMU ■ M\ rsii ; t,W.i.-v£!.7 

JED 



\ JAN 2 2002 






D 




m 



GOVDOC 
6457 
.34 
1977 



ANNUAL 
REPORT 






FISCAL YEAR 

Ending 
JUNE 30, 1977 











DISTRICT MEMBERSHIP 












Water 


Parks 


Sewerage 






Water 


Parks Sewerage 


Arlington 




X 


X 


X 


Revere 




X 


X X 


Ashland 








X 


Saugus 




X 


X 


Belmont 




X 


X 


X 


Somerville 




X 


X X 


'Bedford 








X 


Stoneham 




X 


X X 


Boston 




X 


X 


X 


Stoughton 






X 


Braintree 






X 


X 


Swampscott 




X 


X 


Brookline 




X 


X 


X 


Wakefield 




X 


X X 


Burlington 








X 


Walpole 






X 


Cambridge 




X 


X 


X 


Waltham 




X 


X X 


Canton 




X 


X 


X 


Watertown 




X 


X X 


Chelsea 




X 


X 


X 


**Wellesley 




X 


X X 


Cohasset 






X 




Weston 




X 


X 


Dedham 






X 


X 


Westwood 






X X 


Dover 






X 




Weymouth 






X X 


Everett 




X 


X 


X 


Wilmington 






X 


Framingham 








X 


Winchester 




X 


X X 


Hingham 






X 


X 


Winthrop 




X 


X X 


*Holbrook 








X 


**Woburn 




X 


X 


Hull 






X 




Totals 




^34 


37 ~43~ 


Lexington 




X 




X 










Lynn 






X 












Lynnfield Water Dist. 


X 






(Beyond the Water District the MDC furnishes 


Maiden 
Marblehead 




X 
X 


X 


X 


the entire water supply 
Hadley Fire District No. 


for Chicopee, South 
1 and Wilbraham, a 


Medford 




X 


X 


X 


partial < 


supply to Clinton 


Framingham, Leom- 


Melrose 




X 


X 


X 


inster, 


Marlboro, 


Northboro and Southboro 


Milton 




X 


X 


X 


and an 


emerqer 


cy standby connection for 


Nahant 




X 


X 




Worcester.) 






Natick 








X 










Needham 




X 


X 


X 










Newton 




X 


X 


X 


Membership 








Norwood 




X 




X 










Peabody 




X 






3 Districts 24 








Quincy 




X 


X 


X 


2 Districts 12 








Randolph 








X 


1 District 18 








Reading 








X 


54 








"Bedford 


joined the Sewerage 


District in June, 1970, with < 


sewage for part of the town handled through the town of Lexington 


under special contract. 


Holbrook became a member of Sewerage District in January 


1971, but is not contributing sewage to the 


system. 


















""Woburn 


was admitted to Water District in 


August, 1972, and Wellesley in March 


, 1974, but neither is being supplied pending 


completion of connections. 

































MICHAELS. DUKAKIS 

Governor 

EVELYN F. MURPHY 

Secretary of Environmental Affairs 

JOHN F. SNEDEKER 
Commissioner 

Associate Commissioners 

ANITA B. BANKS 

PETER D. CORBETT 

MARIANNA D. HANNIGAN 

CONCHITA F. RODRIGUEZ 

JOHN A. KESSLER, JR. 

Secrefary of the Commission 

MARTIN F. COSGROVE 
Chief Engineer 

Executive Assistant 
JOHN J. BEADES 



CONTENTS 




Highlights 


3 


Parks Development 


4 


Zoos 


13 


Historic Sites 


15 


Water Supply 


16 


Pollution Control 


20 


Transportation 


23 


Metropolitan District Police . 


24 


Organization 


27 


Finance 


30 


District Membership 


Inside Front Cover 


District Map 


Back Cover 



JOHN WRIGHT 
General Counsel 



OFFICIALS 



GERARD F. ALLEN 

Supervisor of Personnel Management 

FRANCIS T. BERGIN 

Chief Construction Engineer 

Engineering Division 



ALLISON C. HAYES 

Director of Sewerage Division 

Chief Sewerage Engineer 

WILLIAM T. KENNEY 
Director of Central Services 



LAURENCE J. CARPENTER 
Superintendent of Police 



JAMES J. MATERA 

Director of Water Division 

Chief Water Supply Engineer 



JEREMIAH A. FALVEY, JR. 
Director of Right of Way Division 



JULIA B. O BRIEN 
Director of Land Planning 



ALFRED F. FERULLO 
Director of Environmental Quality 



MARTIN WEISS 
Director of Environmental Planning 



MICHAEL A. GOLDMAN 
Director of Public Information 



ROBERT B.WILLIAMS 
Director of Parks and Recreation 



(Incumbents as of 6/30/77) 



Publication of this Document Approved bv Alfreo C Holland, State Purchasing Agent 



1500-8-78-150501 



Est Cost Per Copy $1 20 




2C !Jonu>*Wt '//*>&. •jfies/on €2/0$ 

To His Excellency the Governor and the Secretary of Environmental Affairs: 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: 

To the Honorable Mayors, Selectmen and Muncipal Officials: 

To the Public of the Metropolitan Parks, Sewer and Water Districts: 

The Metropolitan District Commission submits herewith a report on activities and other pertinent 
data for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 977, in accordance with the provisions of Section 1 00, 
Chapter 92 of the General Laws. 

This document is designed to provide a broad overview of MDC's accomplishments during fiscal 
1 977 and plans for the near future in providing vital regional services for nearly 2.5 million inhabi- 
tants of 54 cities and towns. 

It has been a year of substantial progress in fulfilling MDC objectives in our Parks, Sewerage and 
Water Districts. Great strides have been made in expanding and improving the parks system's 
facilities, acquisition of much-needed open space and developing recreation programs. More inten- 
sive pollution control has been achieved through major ongoing projects, while groundwork is being 
laid for an $855 million clean waters program for Boston Harbor and the Charles and Neponset 
rivers — the biggest undertaking in MDC history. A solution for our tight water supply problems is 
being actively pursued and preparations are progressing toward fluoridation of the system in 1 978. 
Our police force has dealt firmly and effectively with a critical challenge of the right of all races to 
use an MDC beach in South Boston during a two-week period of confrontations. Upgrading police 
professional standards has continued through new training methods and psychological testing of 
applicants. During fiscal 1977 there has been a reduction in MDC debt, while maintenance and 
operating costs have increased moderately. 

A notable advance in upgrading MDC personnel efficiency has been initiated through a new 
process for evaluating work performance, attendance and other employment standards and compu- 
terizing the results. Plans call also for in-service training of supervisory employees to sharpen 
management capability. 

I am hopeful that this report will bring greater understanding of MDC's efforts to satisfy basic 
needs, meet environmental goals and enhance the quality of urban life efficiently and economically. 

Respectively submitted, 




John F. Snedeker 
Commissioner 



Highlights of the Year's Activity 



Progress toward large-scale park development and signifi- 
cant open space acquisition highlighted activities of the Metro- 
politan District Commission during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1977. 

In other major developments, preparations moved ahead 
on a huge clean waters program for Boston Harbor and the 
Charles and Neponset rivers and steps were taken to resolve 
controversy over augmenting MDC's inadequate water supply 
by limited diversion of Connecticut River flood flow to Quabbin 
Reservoir. 

In an outstanding addition to MDC's parks system, the first 
phase of a new 200-acre Mystic River Park will be ready for 
public enjoyment next spring. Work begins next year on the 
scenic one-mile oceanfront park and rejuvenation of Revere 
Beach, a 4 '/2 -acre park on the Charles River in Waltham and 
an urban park at Chestnut Hill Reservoir in Brighton. Within the 
next year, it is expected that work will be underway on the new 
Franklin Park Zoo and the Metropolitan Arena and Recreation 
Center, incorporating an indoor high school track, skating rink 
and a park on the Neponset River shoreline in Dorchester. A 
large-scale renovation and development program is nearly 
complete at Stony Brook Reservation in the West Roxbury- 
Hyde Park section of Boston, climaxed next year by a unique 
park and shelter for the handicapped. In the Blue Hills Reser- 
vation, Trailside Museum's new auditorium-classroom building 
has been dedicated and a maior proiect to restore natural 
areas at Houghton's Pond will soon be underway. Entering its 
final stages is the 25-mile bikeway system running on both 
shorelines of the Charles River between Boston and Water- 
town. Virtually completed is first phase restoration of historic 
Fort Independence at Castle Island, South Boston 

Open space acquisition has been highlighted by a 70-acre 
gift in the Blue Hills, a five-acre site for development of John 
Fitzgerald Kennedy Park on Memorial Drive, a 4':-acre area 
for the Waltham riverside park and various parcels of Revere 
Beach's amusement strip for the new park. Prospects are 
bright, also, for a takeover of 26 acres at the former Chelsea 
Naval Hospital property on the lower Mystic River and 135 
acres of saltmarsh in East Boston to supplement a recently- 
acquired 28-acre tract for a new Belle Isle Reservation. 

Groundwork is being laid for implementing the pollution 
control program for Boston Harbor and the Charles and 
Neponset rivers as recommended by a three-year inter-agency 
study of wastewater management in the Boston Harbor-East- 
ern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area (EMMA) The S855 mil- 
lion program, financed by Federal, State and MDC funds, 
launches a new era in pollution control and also satisfies rigid 
Federal requirements Its major provisions call for upgrading 
processing at MDC's two treatment plants from primary to 
secondary treatment, abatement of combined stormwater- 
sewage overflows and eliminating sludge discharge into the 
harbor. Already well underway is an important construction 
project in Charles River's lower basin providing for a storm 



detention-chlonnation facility, a pumping station and major 
interceptor conduits. Treated combined overflows will be dis- 
charged to tidewater below the new Charles River Dam pres- 
ently nearing completion one-half mile below the existing dam 
A destratification system will be operative next year to elimi- 
nate the salt water strata on the river basin bottom which has 
stifled fish and plant life. 

MDC's tight water supply continues to cause great con- 
cern, resulting in a policy decision temporarily closing the door 
to water-short communities seeking Water District member- 
ship until an additional source is obtained. The controversial 
10-year-old plan for limited diversion of Connecticut River 
flood flow to Quabbin Reservoir now awaits completion of an 
environmental impact statement and a review of other options. 
These requirements were recently set by the State Executive 
Office of Environmental Affairs (OEA) with a provision for 
representation from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut on a citizens advisory committee, as 
well as Metropolitan Boston interests Meanwhile. OEA's 
1977 State Water Policy Study report has recommended that 
MDC push its program of water conservation and urged that 
district members locate and remedy sources of water loss 
from leakage in local systems. In another aspect of MDC s 
water supply system, fluoridation as a dental health measure is 
planned for early next year, as required by legislation upon 
approval by a majority of Water District members. 

A racial crisis at South Boston's Carson Beach brought a 
major test of the principle that all people are privileged to enjoy 
a public beach This right was firmly established through firm 
measures by Metropolitan District Police and MDC officials 
during two weeks of confrontations and tension. After a period 
of uncertainty, the continuing role of MDC Police as a separate 
force has been assured following reaction by Governor 
Dukakis of a management task force's recommendation call- 
ing for shifting its functions to other law enforcement agen- 
cies. Authorization was later granted to bolster manpower 
which had diminished by approximately 1 50 men during a |ob 
freeze At the same time, a new detachment has been sta- 
tioned at Clinton for protection of Wachusett Reservoir and 
watershed areas in Central Massachusetts At the Police 
Academy, a number of new techniques have been adopted to 
sharpen police operations, such as defensive driving, cardio- 
pulmonary resuscitation and other "first responded medical 
skills. 

The Metropolitan District Commission now provides ser- 
vices to 54 cities and towns in Metropolitan Boston with a total 
population of 2,431,968 MDC membership consists of 43 
communities with 2.180.074 residents in the Sewerage Dis- 
trict. 34 cities and towns and 1 .836.240 residents in the 
Water District and 37 municipalities with 1.984.940 popula- 
tion in the Parks District Twenty-four municipalities are mem- 
bers of all three districts. 1 2 are served by two districts and 1 8 
by one district 









^S^K^ ''/•• '*S? '.:/ 



... 




- 



* ■;■ 



"X. . 







»: 






- - ; 



John Gustavsen 



AB/g Year for Parks, Open Space Progress 



Widespread park development and substantial open space 
acquisition were in progress in the Metropolitan Parks District 
during the past year. 

The extensive expansion ot recreation opportunities was 
highlighted by a new 200-acre park reservation on the Mystic 
River Basin due for first-phase completion in the spring of 
1978 and preparations for a construction start next year on a 
one-mile oceanfront park and rejuvenation of Revere Beach. 

On the Charles River shoreline a one-mile link in the pro- 
jected 25-mile bikeway system was opened to bicyclists and 
joggers and an additional 4 '/2-mile section will be underway in 
a few months, virtually completing the Boston-Watertown bicy- 
cling network. Improvements at Herter Park Center are pro- 
gressing, along with initial planning for restoration of the 
adjoining outdoor summer theater. Upriver, work is scheduled 
next spring on a riverside park in Waltham. 

A large-scale renovation and development program at the 
470-acre Stony Brook Reservation in the West Roxbury-Hyde 
Park section is in its final stages, culminating next year in an 
innovative park and shelter for handicapped children. 

In the Blue Hills Reservation, Trailside Museum's new audi- 
torium-classroom building has been dedicated and an impor- 
tant upgrading project to restore natural areas at Houghton's 
Pond is ready to go shortly. 

A number of shoreline facilities have been finished or in 
prospect on the South Shore, particularly along Wollaston 
Beach, where improvements will be capped next year by a 
multi-service beach management structure and mini-park. 

Optimism has developed for initiating preliminary site work 
in 1 978 for the long-delayed indoor high school track, skating 
rink and shoreline park on the Neponset River in Dorchester, 
as well as a start on the new Franklin Park Zoo. 

Important open space acquisitions have already been 



consummated or in prospect. Among the new land holdings 
are the gift of a 70-acre addition to Blue Hills Reservation, a 
five-acre site on Memorial Drive for development of John Fitz- 
gerald Kennedy Park, assembling of a 4 1 /2-acre tract for the 
projected Landry Park on Charles River in Waltham and a 
number of parcels for park development at Revere Beach. 
Under consideration is a takeover of 26 acres for a waterfront 
park at the former site of Chelsea Naval Hospital, overlooking 
the lower Mystic River. Negotiations with Massport have 
begun for transfer of 1 35 acres of saltmarsh to supplement 28 
acres acquired at the adjoining former Suffolk Downs drive-in 
theater in East-Boston for developing the new Belle Isle 
Reservation. 

New Mystic Park Opening in 1978 

Transformation of an estuary wasteland along the Mystic 
River Basin into a 200-acre scenic panorama of park, marine 
and recreation facilities is progressing toward completion of its 
major first stage by the spring of 1 978. 

Described as MDC's most exciting open space project in 
many years, the initial $3.2 million phase covers 1 00 acres in 
Somerville and Medford bordering a 525-acre fresh water 
basin converted from unsightly, odorous salt water tidal flats 
and swamp grass by activation of the new Amelia Earhart 
Dam in 1966. An extensive soil reconditioning program was 
required for proper plant growth, because much of the land 
consisted of salt-laden silt. 

The first-phase development features parkland for passive 
recreation, an island wildlife sanctuary, a wetland wildlife 
conservation area and planting of 5000 trees and shrubs. 
Facilities will include a fishing pier, five miles of bicycle paths, 
walkways, benches, picnic tables, a lookout tower, pedestrian 
bridge, boat launch and parking areas. An up-river segment, 





NEW MYSTIC RIVER PARK is nearing first stage com- 
pletion of a 200-acre reclamation and development project 
providing a panorama of park, marine and recreation facili- 
ties, shown in part. Photo on left page shows a portion of the 
original tract, consisting of tidal flats, swamp grass and 
brush. 

adjacent to the Hormel Stadium sports complex, will contain 
four tennis courts and Little League and soccer fields. A sail- 
ing pavilion and dock were completed in 1974 on the Somer- 
ville shore, near Route 93, along with an adjacent park. 

Further improvements will be undertaken in 1978 under a 
$500,000 contract. These will provide lighting for roadways, 
parking areas and the tennis courts, upgrading a section 
behind the Middlesex Fells police station, constructing a police 
boat dock and dredging an access channel. 

Plans for the next stage call for development of park land 
on the west shore of the Maiden River from its confluence with 
the Mystic, a boat launch and extension of first-phase bicycle 
and foot paths. Another project provides for a park and fishing 
pier on a small peninsula alongside Route 93 in Somerville. 

Easily accessible to the heavily-populated area north of 
Boston, the park reservation is located near Route 93 
expressway, the Fellsway, Veterans Memorial Parkway (Route 
1 6) and MBTA's Wellington rapid transit station. 

Revere Beach Park Due to Start 

In another massive project also serving the Parks District's 
northern area, groundwork is well advanced for a construction 
start next year on a one-mile beachfront park and reiuvenation 
of the Revere Beach Reservation. 

The program is an outgrowth of a major joint redevelop- 
ment plan in the beach area incorporating a private housing 
development set back a block from the beach, westerly of 



JacK Maley. MDC 




Kevin O Malley MDC 

Ocean Avenue, a nearby 1 000-car garage at the Wonderland 
MBTA station and a new connector highway from Cutler Cir- 
cle, near Northeast Expressway, Revere 

Under legislation authorizing an initial $5 million expendi- 
ture and acquisition of the deteriorated amusement strip, a 
master plan is being prepared for a landscaped park between 
Ocean Avenue and Revere Beach Boulevard, walkways, 
replenishing the beach sand and protection against erosion 
and storm damage MDC planners have been working closely 
with the housing developer and state and Revere agencies to 
safeguard and enhance public enioyment of the popular recre- 
ation asset acquired in 1 895 as the first publicly-owned beach 
in the country 

An agreement has been signed for exchange of an MDC 



Fireworks and Crowd on 4th Too Much for Hatch Shell 



The music was stirring, the fireworks spectacular and 
a massive 300,000 audience on hand, but the 1 977 July 
4th celebration at Hatch Shell lacked much of the 1976 
Bicentennial fiavor of patriotism and good will. 

Echoes of holiday excitement had hardly died away 
when unruly incidents marring the event stirred reverber- 
ations that cast doubt about any future fireworks display 
as a highlight of the Esplanade program — the primary 
attraction for a big percentage of the audience. 

In only four years, unique features of the celebration 
had skyrocketed attendance from a comfortable 75,000 
to an unwieldy 400,000 for the 1976 Bicentennial 
observance. Throngs reached wall to wall proportions on 
both banks of the Charles River Basin, roadways, roof- 
tops and from a flotilla of boats, but the festivities — a 
nationally-televised Bicentennial spectacle — were 
remarkably free of incidents. "A moment in history" was 
one description of the event. 

The magnet was Boston Symphony's Pops concert of 
patriotic selections conducted by Arthur Fiedler, high- 
lighted by the unique presentation of Tchaikovsky's 
1812 Overture, punctuated by firing of 105 mm howitz- 
ers and accompanied by amplified bell ringers and 
church bells coordinated with fireworks. And the finale 
was a mammoth fireworks display from river barges. 

But in 1 977, pockets of boisterous, disorderly behav- 
ior sprung up, reaching from the Esplanade into Back 
Bay and Beacon Hill streets. Hard-pressed MDC Police 
coped with incidents that piled up 27 arrests, 39 persons 
requiring hospital treatment and 138 suffering minor 



injuries. In the aftermath, one man died in a hit and run 
accident and another drowned at the nearby Charles 
River boat locks. Property damage in the area was consi- 
derable and trash was a formidable problem. 

One newspaper observer described the four-year 
transition as "both a tradition and a tragedy." 

Within hours, voices were raised, calling for scaling 
down the holiday program by eliminating the climactic 
fireworks display, but retaining fireworks related to the 
1812 Overture. Opinions were expressed that disturb- 
ances emanated from a big segment of the audience 
drawn solely by the fireworks exhibition and arguing that 
such displays should be supplied at the community level. 
Too large a crowd for the Esplanade's capacity was 
another commonly-held viewpoint. 

For 1978 the climactic fireworks may be abandoned 
and the program geared to music-lovers, especially in 
deference to Arthur Fiedler's 50th anniversary as con- 
ductor of the Esplanade Pops concerts. 

Another significant policy decision has already been 
reached — barring rock concerts at Hatch Shell. This 
came in the wake of a "Spring Fever" music festival on 
April 30 sponsored by a Boston radio station, which 
unexpectedly attracted 1 50,000 and left behind a mam- 
moth trash problem, a score of arrests, many injuries and 
a nuisance in neighboring streets. 

In general, Hatch Shell was again a prime entertain- 
ment magnet, drawing 607,000 for 30 events ranging 
from a variety of musical performances to the Boston 
Ballet company and modern and contemporary dance 
performances. 



inland parking area off Ocean Avenue for beachfront property 
previously acquired by the housing developer. Together with 
additional parcels to be taken by eminent domain, the 
exchange clears the way for the park site and provides for a 
setback of apartment towers far enough to minimize casting 
shadows on the beach. 

Ground-breaking is scheduled for early next summer on a 
770-foot first phase park development in the vicinity of Shirley 
Avenue and Beach Street, preceded by contracts for demoli- 
tion-landfill work and loaming and seeding in various areas. 
Rehabilitation of the beach police station and renovation of the 
band-stand and pavilions are also expected to be underway 
during 1978. 

About 1 '/2 miles south of Revere Beach, preparations are 
proceeding for developing a proposed 200-acre Belle Isle 
Reservation near Constitution Beach, East Boston, following 
acquisition of the 28-acre, former Suffolk Downs drive-in thea- 
ter The concept provides for a passive park containing open 
space for informal play, tree planting, park benches, picnic 
locations, walkways, bicycle path and a fishing pier. Opening 
an existing closed channel to Belle Isle Creek and cutting a 



second channel will allow tidal flushing and preservation of the 
salt water marsh and also create an island with connecting 
bridges. A transfer of 1 35 acres of the Belle Isle saltmarsh by 
Massport has been requested for expanding the reservation. 

Under consideration is an additional 26-acre waterfront 
park overlooking the lower Mystic River on the former site of 
Chelsea Naval Hospital, just upstream from the Tobin Bridge. 
MDC has expressed interest in the park proposal in conjunc- 
tion with the City of Chelsea's plan to acquire the 80-acre 
Federal property for residential and industrial development, 
community recreation facilities and preservation of certain his- 
torical buildings. 

Charles River Development 

Along the scenic Charles River Basin, MDC is expanding 
opportunities for recreation and relaxation in a continuous pro- 
gram of beautification, development and acquisition of river- 
side open space. 

The projected 25-mile bikeway system on both shores of 
the Charles between Boston and Watertown is nearing com- 
pletion and already widely used by recreation-minded and 









A',' 






^ 



Jack Maley. MOC 

INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATION at Hatch Shell on the Charles River Esplanade was packed at every vantage point 
on July 4th by 300,000 people for the Pops concert conducted by Arthur Fiedler and a massive fireworks display. 



commuting bicyclists and also joggers. A newly-finished 
$301 ,904 section has extended the Esplanade bikeway one 
mile along Soldiers Field Road, Boston, between B.U. and 
River Street bridges, equipped with overlooks, benches and 
landscaping. An interesting aspect is a wooden bridge swung 
out over the river on pilings beneath B.U. Bridge as a link to 
existing paths on the Esplanade. Missing links and improve- 
ments on the north side of the Charles between Boston and 
Watertown were completed previously. Work on the next 
$51 6,000 phase will begin in the fall of 1 977, to improve 4 Yi 
miles of the Esplanade bike system between the Museum of 
Science and B.U. Bridge. Under this contract 10 new emer- 
gency police phones will line the route, supplementing six 
existing phones being moved for better coverage, along with 
ramps, benches, picnic tables, drinking fountains, fences, 
signs and various safety features. The network's final link will 
be the Boston stretch from River Street Bridge to Watertown 
Square. 

Creation of a new beauty spot on the Cambridge side of 
the Charles River is in its preliminary stage, lollowing legisla- 
tion conveying a five-acre site to MDC for development of 
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Park for passive recreation The 
parcel is part of state-donated land originally intended for the 



Kennedy Library, later shifted to the University of Massachu- 
setts-Boston campus Preliminary work such as landfillmg. 
loaming and seeding will be underway in 1978 for a fitting 
memorial to the late President located at Memorial Drive and 
Boylston Street, adjacent to the projected Kennedy School of 
Government and Institute of Politics being built by Harvard 
University. Funding for the park and its maintenance will come 
from the sale of portions of the original tract to Harvard and a 
private developer. 

On the Boston riverfront off Soldiers Field Road. Brighton. 
extensive structural renovations are proceeding at Herter Park 
Center, formerly Metropolitan Boston Arts Center (MeBac) 
Design work is scheduled for next year on restoring the adiom- 
ing outdoor summer theater where the Publick Theater has 
been offering performances for the past seven years A new 
stage, seating for 400 persons and tree-planting will be 
among the planned improvements The Herter Center will also 
be the scene of a solar energy installation as an educational 
demonstration and heating supply financed by a S97.000 
Federal grant. The Center, named in honor of the late Massa- 
chusetts Governor and US Secretary of State, has been des- 
ignated for environmental, cultural, recreational and educa- 
tional uses Among its activities have been urban gardening 



Takeover of Skating Rinks 
Proposed to Municipalities 

Discussions have been initiated with communities 
in the Parks District for a takeover of MDC's 26 skat- 
ing rinks, with one long-term agreement already 
negotiated with the town of Arlington to operate the 
local rink. 

The divestiture proposal followed a conclusion 
that rinks spread through Boston and 13 other cities 
and towns have become largely local in usage rather 
than regional and that they might be more appro- 
priately operated by municipalities. By integrating 
rinks with year-round municipal recreation programs 
and with moderate rental and admission fee 
increases, financial projections indicate that rinks 
may be run at a break-even point by local manage- 
ment in contrast to MDC's deficit operation. Under the 
divestiture plan, municipalities are being offered a 
25-year lease at $1 per year and MDC assumption of 
major repairs during the first five years. 

A $3.8 million rink improvement program is in 
process, including fully enclosing and major changes 
at three open-sided rinks in Milton, Cleveland Circle 
in Boston and Everett and replacement of the old 
Devine rink in Dorchester. The conversions will leave 
only seven open-sided rinks in the system. Extensive 
improvements are also underway at rinks in South 
Boston, East Boston and Arlington. 



demonstrations, ethnic cultural events, a music and theater 
performing arts series and various exhibits. 

Upriver, another sightly riverside park development will be 
under construction next spring adjacent to Moody Street Dam 
in Waltham on a 4/2 -acre site including 2.2 acres of riverbed, 
acquired through eminent domain and use of a city-owned 
tract. The $478,000 project calls for a passive recreation area 
with walkways, benches, tree planting, landscaping and a 
lighting system. Other features are an 80-foot pedestrian 
bridge and a fish ladder at the dam for upstream migration of 
spawning fish. The acquisition and development are in line 
with MDC policy to acquire available shorefront for conversion 
to green park space, a program strongly supported by the late 
Representative Richard E. Landry of Waltham for whom the 
park will be named. 

Design work is slated to begin in 1 978 on restoration of a 
1 5-acre passive recreation area at the old Riverside Park in 
the Newton-Weston section, featuring a canoe launch, pic- 
nicking, benches, planting and renovation of two pedestrian 
bridges and an existing structure for office purposes. 

Urban Park at Chestnut Hill 

In a few months, construction will be underway on a $2.2 
million urban park at MDC's Chestnut Hill Reservoir grounds. 



The new facility is an outgrowth of a controversy over pollution 
effects of encroachment within the fenced shoreline by jog- 
gers, picnickers, swimmers and dogs which resulted in barring 
the public from the distribution reservoir grounds in Brighton. 
Jogging in the scenic area will be restored on a 1 .6-mile 
jogging path behind a relocated fence installed to protect the 
water supply from people using the park. The project also 
provides for wooden benches, drinking fountains, a new play- 
ground near MDC's Cleveland Circle skating rink, bike paths, 
landscaping and upgrading the roadway drainage system to 
prevent runoff from entering the reservoir. Two roadways 
within 1 7 1 /2 acres transferred from the City of Boston will be 
reconstructed. 

Stony Brook Reservation Projects 

An extensive $2.8 million renovation and development 
program has moved into its final stages at the 470-acre Stony 
Brook Reservation in the thickly-settled West Roxbury-Hyde 
Park section of Boston. The improvements provide a wide 
variety of athletic, park and active and passive recreation facil- 
ities and specially-designed areas for handicapped children 
and for the elderly. 

Work is scheduled to start in a few months on the innova- 
tive John F. Thompson Memorial Park and a shelter designed 
for handicapped children. This concluding $600,000 phase 
will consist of a central structure, woodlands, nature trails with 
descriptive environmental exhibits in Braille, play and picnic 
areas and outdoor classroom. 

Other facilities already installed or nearing completion 
include two fishing piers at Turtle Pond, picnic grounds, 
improvement and expansion of the hiking and bicycle path 
system, three lighted tennis courts, play equipment, a new 
River Street athletic field and bleachers, planting of 1210 
trees and parking areas. For the elderly an overlook park was 
designed as a viewing area, equipped with benches and game 
tables and a gazebo surrounded by a moat. The reservation 
will be serviced by a $344,360 park maintenance facility due 
for late-1977 completion. 

Newly-available for the 1976 summer season was the 
major $1 67,91 upgrading of a nearby five-acre park 
embracing Francis D. Martini Music Shell on Truman Highway, 
Hyde Park, emphasizing restoration of the natural environ- 
ment. The project provided for floodlighting, a natural grass 
amphitheatre, extensive tree and shrub planting, relocation of 
two lighted tennis courts, a lighted basketball court, a new 
picnic area and lighting standards. 

In another Hyde Park program, a $476,774 renovation is 
underway at Colella, Moynihan and Camp Meigs playgrounds 
and also DeSantis Park where a natural area is being en- 
hanced by walkways and benches. Work at the playgrounds 
includes Little League fields, four tennis courts, a wading pool, 
replacement of play equipment and trees and shrubs. 

Blue Hills Improvements 

A big boost for enlarging and enhancing the 5,700-acre 
Blue Hills Reservation occurred during the year through a gen- 




STONY BROOK RESERVATION is undergoing a large- 
scale renovation and development program, now in its final 
stages. Shown are three types of facilities installed at the 
470-acre reservation. 



erous gift of the 70-acre Brookwood Farm valued variously 
from $1 million to $2.5 million. The benefactor, Henry Salton- 
stall Howe, donated an estate consisting of a 1 0-room man- 
sion, farm buildings, three ponds and woodlands located in 
Milton and Canton, adjacent to the reservation. Rather than 
allow residential or commercial development, Mr Howe said 
transfer of the property to MDC would assure its remaining in 
a natural state While retaining the privilege of residing at 
Brookwood during his lifetime, he offered to relinquish the 
home if the Commonwealth desired to utilize it as an official 
Governor's residence. 

Blue Hills Reservation was further enhanced by completion 
of a $295,433 auditorium-classroom at the popular Trailside 
Museum to accommodate natural history educational pro- 
grams and an exhibit construction and storage area The barn- 
style structure is an addition to the museum's original Dutch 
colonial farmhouse used for exhibits and a visitors center 
Work will be underway in 1978 on a $150,000 contract for 
landscaping and other improvements of parking lots, grounds 
and the animal exhibit area. 

In the Blue Hills area, also, a $365,000 project will begin 
in a few months to upgrade the heavily-used Houghton's Pond 
facilities Aimed at restoring its natural beauty, plans call for 
improvements to worn and eroded areas, relocation and rede- 
sign of access road and parking spaces, overhauling and 
blending of equipment with the natural area, new play equip- 
ment and informal plantings. 

Schoolboy Track Outlook Brightens 

The outlook for clearing a 1 2-year obstacle course now 
appears promising for an indoor high school track serving the 
Parks District, designed as the centerpiece of a 70 7-acre. $7 
million park and recreation center on the Neponset River 
shoreline in Dorchester, near Southeast Expressway 




Plans for modifying structural design to bring costs into line 
with available funds have opened the way to proceed with site 
preparation in 1978 

Latest construction delay developed last year when the 
lowest bid of $6 5 million for the track, ice hockey forum, 
entrance-service building and associated facilities indicated 
that the entire complex would exceed authorized funds by 
$14 million Attempts to obtain additional funds or delete the 
hockey forum mandated by legislation were unsuccessful, 
leading to a decision for scaling down the size of structures 
seating capacity and outdoor aspects of the proiect The need 
for a hockey forum has been considered questionable since 
the nearby Devme rink is scheduled for a $1 4 million, fully- 
enclosed replacement next year 

The first phase planned for next year will consist of site 
preparation, utilities, roadways and parking Six months later 
a construction start is scheduled for the multi-use track struc- 
ture, entrance-service and rink buildings and outdoor facilities 




Jack Maley, MDC 

AUDITORIUM-CLASSROOM building has been com- 
pleted at Trailside Museum, shown at left. The barn-like 
structure was designed to blend with the museum's original 
colonial farmhouse at right. 



The sprawling 67,000-square-foot track facility will accom- 
modate a full range of competitive events and provisions for 
badminton, basketball, volley ball, boxing, wrestling, physical- 
conditioning activities and handball courts. Seating has been 
reduced from 5000 to 1000, plus portable seating for 1500 
to serve special events. This change in the interests of cost 
reduction also meets neighborhood concern about drawing 
large spectator crowds and traffic problems. Another revision 
has shifted the hockey rink from a fully-enclosed to an open- 
sided structure. 

Rounding out the complex, the second phase also pro- 
vides a wide variety of outdoor sports and park facilities, 
including Softball, soccer, tennis, basketball, racquet ball and 
street hockey courts, bicycle paths, family picnic areas and a 
boat-launching ramp. 

South Shoreline Uplift 

For the populous South Shore area, significant waterfront 
recreation projects have been completed or in various stages 
of progress, highlighted by a $3 million, multi-purpose 
improvement program along Quincy Shore drive at heavily- 
patronized Wollaston Beach Reservation. 





RECREATION FOR ALL TASTES is available at Parks 
District facilities. Canoeing on the Charles River, good fish- 
ing at the Lynn pier, a Sunday concert at Nahant Beach and 
skiing in the Blue Hills are examples of varied activity. 



Lesson in Crime Doesn't Pay' 
Helps Cleanup at Peddocks 



Lessons in "crime doesn't pay" and the rewards 
of hard work have been taught to 40 juvenile offend- 
ers in a work project jointly sponsored by the Quincy 
District Court and MDC. 

The youthful offenders, including five girls, spent 
the 1 977 summer season giving an uplift to Peddocks 
Island by clearing roadways, pruning fruit trees, 
cleaning buildings, developing picnic sites and build- 
ing fireplaces. Their compensation from Federal 
CETA funds enabled them to earn money for fines and 
restitution for victims of their crimes ranging from van- 
dalism to breaking and entering. 



Culminating the Wollaston improvements will be a 
$255,000 multi-service beach management structure and 
mini-park, scheduled for a construction start in the spring of 
1 978 at the newly-acquired site of the former Kimberly's Res- 
taurant and an adjoining parcel. The structure will contain pub- 
lic rest-rooms and facilities for lifeguards, first aid and police. 
An adjacent landscaped park will provide benches, a shade 
shelter, walkway and lighting. Among other recent projects 
along Shore Drive have been a new culvert-type bridge, 
Black's Creek dredging, highway reconstruction and improve- 
ments at Caddy Park and historic Moswetuset Hummock. 

At Nantasket Beach, plans are developing for seawall 
repair or reconstruction, a walkway or boardwalk along a sec- 
tion of Hull Shore Drive, landscaping, lighting and other 
upgrading. The planning phase is being coordinated with Hull 
Redevelopment Authority's apartment house project on an 
adjoining 33-acre site. Scheduled for 1978 construction is a 
relocated beach sanitary and service building. 

Along Morrissey Boulevard in Dorchester's Savin Hill sec- 
tion, a neglected eyesore at Patten's Cove has been con- 



10 




Bob Crosby. Lynn Daily Item 

Barrier Gates Reduce Access, 
Tighten Security at Reservations 

A new safeguard to combat costly fires, vandalism 
and crime by reducing the number of access roads is 
being installed at six MDC park reservations. 

In an effort to tighten security, locked barrier gates 
are being erected at entry points of primary fire trails, 
with boulders placed at smaller entry ways. Passage for 
horses and pedestrians will be available and keys will be 
provided to local fire departments for emergencies. 

Reduction of access points is expected to counteract 
dumping and torching of stolen cars entering reserva- 
tions at unauthorized locations, as well as preventing 
trash disposal and vandalism. 

The $118,514 project was launched to deal with a 
growing problem which has piled up repair and mainte- 
nance costs at MDC recreation facilities estimated at 
more than $500,000 annually. Besides the burden of 
trash removal, vandals have wreaked heavy damage to 
pools, rinks, athletic field bleachers, signs and plantings. 
Plumbing has been ripped out at some facilities. Much 
time has been spent on removing graffiti. About 400 
automobiles have been abandoned in reservations, 
many of them torched. 

Reservations to be protected by barrier gates or boul- 
ders are Blue Hills, Middlesex Fells, Cutler Park, Stony 
Brook, Nahant Beach and Fowl Meadow. 



verted into an attractive, five-acre natural park under a 
$1 33,329 contract and work has begun on upgrading Malibu 
Beach at a cost of $333,683. By the 1978 summer season, 
the recently-demolished old Malibu bathhouse will be replaced 
by a new management facility with a bathhouse, lifeguard sta- 
tion, first aid room and office space. The beach area is being 




restored to a park-like character, with trees. : ^hore 

plantings, benches, shelters and walkway 

Demolition of the badly-vandalized and dilapidates 
Point bathhouse in South Boston, considered beyond repair 
has been completed The site will be restored to beac' 
and equipped with a covered shelter 

A solution for future operation of Boston intici- 

pated shortly through negotiations with neighboring Norf 
ern University, which uses the hockey rink extensively along 
with Boston high and |unior high schools ommunity 

teams Arrangements are expected to include continued use 
by present participants The arena became MDC prop 
1975 when the Boston Arena Authority v. ed For the 

past two years, the City of Boston has had care and conl 
use primarily as a municipal sports center until Ju . 
when the city dropped plans to pi ty 



1 1 




Jack Maley, MDC 

WINTER SPORTS ACTIVITIES are featured by ice-skating at 25 MDC rinks, including hockey competition shown at Steriti 
rink in Boston's North End, and popular cross-country skiing at Martin Golf Course bordering the Charles River in Weston. 



Policy Action Assures Open Space Preservation 



"The life history of humanity has proved nothing more 
clearly than that crowded populations, if they would live in 
health and happiness, must have space for air, for light, for 
exercise, for rest, and for the enjoyment of that peaceful beauty 
of nature which, because it is the opposite of the noisy ugliness 
of towns, is so wonderfully refreshing to the tired souls of 
townspeople.'' 

— Charles Eliot (1859-97), landscape architect and 
pioneer planner of the Metropolitan Parks System 

A declaration of park land policy has been spelled out 
by the Metropolitan District Commission to preserve and 
enhance the priceless heritage of open space left by foun- 
ders of MDC's park system nearly a century ago and nur- 
tured by their successors. 

The wide-ranging, explicit principles set forth by the 
Commissioners served notice that park land holdings are 
"the most significant and valuable asset" of the Metropoli- 
tan Park System and declared their determination to pres- 
erve open space for "public enjoyment, relaxation, inspira- 
tion and recreation." 

The policy statement asserted the Commission's 
opposition to any sale or lease of park holdings for non- 
park or private use unless it is defined as inappropriate 
either for park purposes currently or in the future or for 
integration with park holdings. Any departure from this dec- 
laration must conform to specific guidelines, such as "a 
public desire compatible with open space values that can. 
in the Commission's judgement, best be provided to the 
public by a private party." 

"The appropriateness of a proposed use can be deter- 
mined only on a case by case basis," the Commission 



stated. "In making such a determination, the Commission 
reviews such considerations as the character of the prop- 
erty affected, the impact of the proposed use, the number 
of potential users of the proposed service, the quality of 
this service, the reputation of the private party and the 
basic suitability of the service as a responsibility of the 
Commission." 

Existing non-conforming uses were acknowledged but 
these will be terminated within a reasonable period follow- 
ing expiration of leases. However, 1 8 yacht clubs which 
are non-conforming uses in existence for decades would 
not be disturbed since they cannot feasibly be relocated. 
The Commission has established new lease fees for this 
category, prohibits their expansion and strongly opposes 
leases to any new yacht club. Other special uses cited by 
the Commission are occupants who deeded their property 
to the Commission and therefore received leases or favora- 
ble terms for long periods of time. 

The Commission flatly expressed opposition to sale of 
any park land except in rare cases where no prospect of its 
use exists and outlined procedure for such disposition. This 
would require securing legislation permitting disposition for 
non-park purposes and then offering the land to other divi- 
sions within the MDC, a particular city or town for municipal 
purposes, other state agencies and finally for sale to the 
prior owner, if known, or to abutters and/or general private 
sale at fair market value. 

In defining property inappropriate for sale, the policy 
statement specified parcels whose preservation contributes 
to the quality of nearby Commission land, abutting a river 
or wetlands or presenting an opportunity to strengthen the 
greenbelt along heavily impacted parkways. 



12 



New Franklin Park Zoo Set 
For 1978 Construction Start 



Major construction is set for next year in the first stage of a 
new Franklin Park Zoo planned as an innovative year-round, 
72-acre zoological garden featuring African wildlife in natural- 
istic, free-running settings. 

The initial $14 million phase in modernizing the 65-year- 
old zoo was given impetus by adoption of a modified master 
plan concept and assurance of $4,895,000 in Federal public 
works funds under a grant from the Economic Development 
Administration, Revisions of the zoo development plan were 
approved by MDC after presentation by the Boston Zoological 
Society (BZS), which has managed the Franklin Park Zoo, 
Children's Zoo and Stone Zoo in Stoneham for the MDC since 
1970. 

In the first step, demolition of the worn-out, outmoded 
Elephant House and Feline House will be completed early next 
year, followed by a 1 0-foot-high animal-proof perimeter fence 
in the Glen Lane-Circuit Drive area, where 1 6 acres of passive 
recreation and picnic facilities will be installed later. By the end 
of 1978, bids will be requested for the $6.5 million African 
Tropical Forest pavilion, enclosing one acre of land. A natural 
habitat will be installed at a cost of $1 .3 million to exhibit 
gorillas, bongo antelopes, crocodiles, monkeys, pigmy hippos 
and natural dioramas for small animals, birds and reptiles. 

As part of the next $3.8 million construction stage, the 
Tropical Forest pavilion will be provided with six acres of out- 
door ranges, where animals will roam during good weather. 
This stage will also include the savanna exhibit's holding struc- 
ture, supplemented by a seven-acre African plains outdoor 
exhibit displaying giraffes, zebras, wildebeasts, gazelles, 
ostriches and lions. A 2'/2-acre savanna pavilion is being post- 
poned until a later construction phase. Other work planned 
under the $3.8 million program includes Children's Zoo reno- 
vation, renovations and repairs for the Antelope House. Bird's 
World and range area, picnic area, administration-hospital 
building addition, site landscaping, walkways, lighting, utilities, 
parking and miscellaneous improvements. 

Subsequently, a 1 Vacre bush forest pavilion will be con- 
structed, along with 10 acres of outdoor exhibit area Under 
the modified master plan, the desert pavilion has been 
deleted, but its concept will be preserved by displaying ani- 
mals from that environment in the Antelope House area and 
on the range 

All animal exhibits will be complemented by new graphics 
systems, audio-visual displays and educational displays 
funded by BZS to enhance the zoo experience 

In addition to the Economic Development Administration's 
$4,895,000 grant, the new zoo will be financed by a $5 3 
million balance in an MDC bond issue authorization, an antici- 
pated $1 ,205,000 contribution by the U.S. Bureau of Outdoor 
Recreation and BZS private funding of $2 5 million for ani- 
mals, plants and educational exhibits as well as advertising the 
new facility 



Zoo 

VioBil? 




ZOOMOBILE transports animals for close, friendly con- 
tact with youngsters in classrooms and other locations in 
the Parks District. 



Dentist Makes House Calls 
For Zoo Animals' Tooth Care 



m 



Health care for animals at MDC zoos knows no 
bounds and, of course, this includes house calls by a 
dentist. 

Typical dental problems treated at Franklin Park 
and Stone zoos during the year were a tooth-filling for 
a lady monkey, root canal work on a lioness and 
repair of a broken tooth for a hyena. Needless to say, 
the animal patients are careful anaesthetized and 
sound asleep while the work is performed. 






At the Stone Zoo. extensive improvements to the heating 
and ventilating systems have been completed at a cost of 
$104,361 and a maior $451,543 refurbishing project will 
begin shortly at the Aviary, a tall, enclosed birdhfe exhibit built 
as the zoo's centerpiece 

Meanwhile. BZS has been steadily broadening its scope of 
recreation, education, conservation and research activity and 
planning further expansion of these functions for the protected 
African zoo. 

The BZS Education Department is now one of the largest 
and most diverse of any zoo or aquarium in the country In 
conjunction with four other cultural institutions. BZS has 
embarked on an in-service training program for school teach- 
ers designed to utilize educational resources for classroom 
curricula, financed by a grant from National Endowment for 
the Humanities Classroom groups from Metropolitan Boston 
schools have engaged in educational programs at the Chil- 
dren s Zoo. A Bird's World " at Franklin Park and at Stone 
Zoo. utilizing close contact with animals, wildlife films, games, 
skits and crafts Live animals have trekked to four Boston 



13 




BREEDING ACTIVITY at MDC zoos has successfully 
produced new inhabitants and helped to protect some 
endangered species from extinction. Among a variety of 
typical new arrivals are these offspring — zebra, tiger, 
camel and sea lion. 



Unique 'People' Events Draw 
Diverse Participants to Zoo 

There's no limit to the Boston Zoological Society's 
ingenuity in devising unique "people" events during 
the past year at Franklin Park Zoo. 

There was the "International Celebration of Peo- 
ple and Other Animals" with exhibits and activities 
dealing with environments, habitats and diverse cul- 
tures of both human and animal populations around 
the world. Then there were special children's events 
like the pumpkin decorating contest, a theater work- 
shop based on familiar animal stories from children's 
literature, performances by National Theater for Chil- 
dren and the City Stage Company. Films were also 
shown, including the hilarious "Man's First Attempts 
at Flying" coincident with the annual kite festival and 
a documentary on the wolf as a threatened species. A 
highlight was an old-fashioned picnic complete with 
dixieland bands, barbershop quartets, sack and relay 
races and a tug of war. 



branch libraries along with films, slides and graphics as part of 
a new community wildlife education program. Elementary 
schoolchildren have also been treated to guided topic tours for 
a learning experience in animal communication, endangered 
species and camouflage and coloration. Other educational 
opportunities were offered at the new Children's Zoo Theatre- 
dome, 1 94 Zoomobile visits to classrooms and other locations 
and 1 66 appearances of the Traveling Zoo at outdoor facilities 
during the summer vacation. A unique summer "City Safari" 
at Children's Zoo has been developed for pre-schoolers to 




explore the world of zoo animals. Another attraction is a new 
insect exhibit. 

Conservation efforts have had considerable success 
through emphasis of animal collections in breeding groups 
and acquisition of endangered species to protect them from 
extinction. A rare birth in captivity was a sea lion pup at the 
Stone Zoo pool. Among other new infants at MDC zoos during 
the year were Indian antelopes, a one-pound DeBrazza mon- 
key and for contrast a 70-pound water buffalo, and three Si- 
berian tiger cubs. A new Department of Behavioral Research 
has been established at Stone Zoo in collaboration with the 
University of Lowell. 

This summer sees the beginning of a BZS conservation 
program at Franklin Park to train 20 neighborhood youths in 
planting, pruning and cleaning within the zoo, funded by 
Youth Conservation Corps. 

The Advertising Club of Boston selected BZS as recipient 
of a year's free advertising to attract the larger attendance that 
Franklin Park enjoyed prior to school-busing tensions in Bos- 
ton. Efforts this spring resulted in a 40% increase in attend- 
ance at Children's Zoo over last season. 

BZS is continuing to strengthen its staff and financial base 
in preparation for future increased management responsibili- 
ties as well as administering revenue generated when admis- 
sion is charged at both Franklin Park and Stone zoos. 



14 




HISTORIC FORT INDEPENDENCE is nearing completion of first stage restoration, opening the way for public viewing 
possibly next year. Adjacent to the Castle Island site in South Boston are shown MDC s fishing pier (upper left). Pleasure Bay 
sailing facility and beach (lower right) and park area. 



Major Restoration Near at Famed Ft. Independence 



First-phase restoration of an outstanding historic site at 
Fort Independence on Castle Island, South Boston, has been 
nearly completed, clearing the way for limited public viewing 
next year. 

The initial $857,000 project has provided for concrete 
waterproofing and restoring earthern ramparts, installing a 
walkway overlooking Boston Harbor, preparing gun casemate 
rooms for exhibits and constructing utility lines Simulta- 
neously, archeologists from Brown University have uncovered 
hundreds of historic artifacts, many now on display in the 
MDC headquarters lobby. 

Planning is underway on restoring interior rooms and 
developing an interpretive tour of the fortifications, whose his- 
tory dates back to 1 634 as one of the oldest, continuously 
fortified sites in the country The fort was originally built of 
logs, earthworks of mud and masonry made of lime from oys- 
ter shells. It was rebuilt or substantially improved eight times, 
once by Lieut Col Paul Revere two years after its destruction 
in 1 776 by the British during their evacuation of Boston. The 
present granite structure was completed in 1 851 . 



The facilities, linked to the mainland by a causeway since 
1 891 . have also housed a prison and a marine hospital estab- 
lished m 1 799. a forerunner of the US Public Health Service 
As the fort s commander. Paul Revere led the first 4th of July 
celebration in 1777. an event recalled by a 200th anniversary 
ceremony there on Independence Day of 1977 

At Fort Warren on Georges Island. 12 rooms were availa- 
ble to the public for the first time as part of an extensive 
improvement program aided by Federal funds New interpreta- 
tive signs have provided a self-guided tour of the Civil War 
fortification which served also as a prison for Confederate civil 
and military personnel During the Spanish-American War and 
World War I and II it was used as a mine center for h 
protection An archeological program completed this year has 
unearthed military artifacts related to each of these wars as 
well as obiects dating to the Revolutionary War period 

Transfer of Bunker Hill Battlefield and Monument to the 
National Park Service as part of the new Boston National His- 
torical Park was formally marked in a ceremony on the monu- 
ment grounds last November The MDC had maintained and 
operated the facilities since 1919 



15 



Wafer Supply Dilemma Awaits New Study 



A new decision-making process has been adopted for 
breaking a 1 0-year deadlock over augmenting MDC's water 
supply by flood-skimming the Connecticut River. 

In an effort to resolve controversial issues and reach a final 
determination, MDC has been requested by the State Execu- 
tive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) to proceed with 
preparation of an environmental impact statement and review 
of other options Opposition from the river area has led to a 
decision by EOEA to include representation from the Connect- 
icut River Valley in Massachusetts and the State of Connecti- 
cut on a citizens advisory committee, as well as Metropolitan 
Boston interests. 

The long-delayed plan, authorized by legislation in 1967, 
provides for strictly limited diversion of flood flow to MDC's 
principal water source at Quabbin Reservoir, producing the 
equivalent of 72 million gallons per day (mgd) annually. 
Stressing the urgency of a new supply, daily consumption cur- 
rently averages 321 mgd, while the safe yield from MDC 
resources remains at 300 mgd. 

District Closed to New Members 

The tight water supply has led to a recent policy decision 
temporarily closing the door to accepting new members in the 
Metropolitan Water District until an additional supply is 
obtained. The action has already affected four Metropolitan 
Boston communities with severe supply problems — Bedford, 
North Reading, Stoughton and a section of Lynnfield. How- 
ever, emergency water supplies have been made available to 
Stoughton and Bedford via adjacent Water District members. 
The City of Worcester was also assisted during 1 977 when it 
utilized its privilege of taking an emergency supply. Prior to the 
moratorium on new customers, the hard-pressed Western 
Massachusetts towns of South Hadley and Amherst, including 
the University of Massachusetts, were offered up to five mgd 
of MDC water as an alternative if no other source can be found 
locally. Several other towns also in the Quabbin Reservoir area 
are considering MDC as a possible solution to water problems. 

Planning has been well advanced for facilities to flood-skim 
a limited volume of the river's flow during the spring freshet 
season, restricted by legislation to 375 mgd and only when 
the flow is 1 7,000 cubic feet per second or more at 
Montague, Mass. The diversion would amount to about 1 % of 
the flow in excess of 1 7,000 cubic feet per second. A Special 
Legislative Commission which studied the proposed diversion 
reported in 1970 that "the projected total water needs of the 
Connecticut River Valley, including water supply, recreation, 
navigation, fish and wildlife, cooling and water quality, can be 
amply met by a river flow of 1 0,000 cubic feet per second at 
Thompsonville, Conn." and that "a corresponding flow at 
Montague, Mass. would be considerably less than 10,000 




Julia Giannangelo, MDC 

IDYLLIC SCENE shows the spillway channel discharging 
overflow from Quabbin Reservoir to the Swift River. 



cubic feet per second." Maximum decrease in river flood 
stage caused by the diversion would be about two inches at 
Montague City or about one-half inch at the Thompsonville 
gage, according to a 1976 environmental impact statement 
by the Army Corps of Engineers. 

The plan calls for a 10-mile aqueduct between Quabbin 
and the Northfield Mt. pumped storage reservoir built by 
Northeast Utilities for hydro-electric power production, con- 
taining additional capacity for the proposed diversion. Delays 
have been caused by legal complications on reaching an 
agreement with Northeast Utilities. Meanwhile, river valley 
interests have raised controversial environmental issues and 
contended that alternative solutions were available, while the 
State of Connecticut has protested on the basis of riparian 
rights and down-river effects. 

River Diversion Most Effective' Source 

The 1977 State Water Policy Study draft report of the 
Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) concluded 
that the question of MDC supply augmentation requires 
"primary consideration in the development of water supply 
strategy" and stated: 

"The single most effective, least environmentally disrup- 



16 



Fluoridation Plant Ready for 1978, 
Lead Corrosion Control Successful 

Fluoridation as a dental health measure is slated 
tor the Metropolitan Water District early in 1 978 upon 
completion ot a $753,000 facility in Southboro linked 
with tunnels carrying water into the district from 
Quabbin and Wachusett reservoirs. 

The process is expected to save upwards of $7 
million annually for persons under the age of 20 by 
reducing tooth decay, according to an estimate by 
Massachusetts Dental Society. Its annual cost has 
been estimated at 10<P per capita versus 25<t if mem- 
ber communities fluoridated separately. Seven of the 
32 municipalities presently served by the district are 
already fluoridating. 

The program follows a 1 972 ruling by the Attorney 
General that MDC must fluoridate its water upon 
approval by boards of public health in a majority of the 
district members. Health authorities in 28 communi- 
ties have taken favorable action. Fluoridation has 
been endorsed by the State Legislature which 
approved funding in 1 974, the State Commissioner of 
Public Health, State Department of Environmental 
Quality Engineering and the Federal Environmental 
Protection Agency. 

A process for overcoming corrosion in outmoded 
lead pipes still in partial use by municipal systems and 
in some older homes will also be housed at the new 
facility. Application of a caustic soda solution for this 
purpose began in May at a pilot plant to offset the 
corrosive effect of MDC's soft water. Action was 
taken following sampling in Boston, Somerville and 
Cambridge households indicating lead content of 
drinking water in excess of Federal standards. The 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, reported 
however, that the problem was not with MDC water, 
described as "one of the finest serving an urban area 
anywhere in the country." Results obtained currently 
indicate substantial improvements due to this pro- 
gram, according to the EPA. 



tive, lowest unit-cost measure to augment the MDC's basic 
source of water supply and make up the deficit between cur- 
rent safe yield and projected withdrawals is to make opera- 
tional the diversion of Connecticut River seasonal flood 
flows . . ." 

It was decided by EOEA. however, that a final determina- 
tion should be withheld until an environmental impact state- 
ment and further review of other options are completed 
Completion of this procedure, estimated at 1 2 to 1 8 months, 
and consideration by state and Federal agencies indicate a 
timetable of at least five to six years before river flood flows 



can be tapped — assuming that approvals are forthcoming 
and litigation can be avoided. 

The EOEA has also established stringent requirements for 
inter-basin water transfers, including utilization of all local 
water resources, effective water conservation measures and 
determining minimum stream flow requirements for source 
streams as part of an environmental impact review The Water 
Supply Policy Study report stated, nevertheless, that inter- 
basin transfer must be maintained as a necessary option 
"since the urban water resource is extremely limited and there 
are multiple use demands on it." 

In its conservation efforts. MDC has sought legislation to 
provide financial aid for district members in locating sources of 
water loss from leakage in municipal systems and for remedial 
construction. Authority has also been requested to establish 
regulations on water use and to require repeal of discounts for 
quantity use. An initial S1 40.000 program has been instituted 
by MDC to improve accuracy of its metering system monitor- 
ing water delivered to cities and towns 

A long-feared water crisis has been averted only by four 
successive wet years during 1 972-75. producing precipitation 
of 30.35 inches above average at the Quabbin watershed. 
followed early in 1976 by the first overflow in 15 years But 
the reservoir dropped 13.6% to 7 38 feet below capacity by 
the end of the year, although rainfall was only one-half inch 
below average. Elevation has continued below capacity, drop- 
ping as low as 8 87 feet below full elevation or 83 7% of 
capacity on March 4. Engineers have long felt that the reser- 
voir cannot be supported even by normal precipitation Quab- 
bin's status is particularly significant, for the 41 2 billion gallon 
reservoir represents about 85% of MDC s total storage capac- 
ity and its sources encompass approximately 69% of the sys- 
tem's watershed area 

Of concern to water supply managers is the memory of the 
1 961-65 drought which reduced Quabbin to 45% of capacity 

— down by 34 feet and 227 billion gallons An analysis has 
shown that a recurrence of the drought would drop the level to 
31 o based on current consumption 

Big Potential Demand Faces MDC 

Meanwhile, further demands on resources of the Metropoli- 
tan Water District lie ahead The last two communities admit- 
ted to the district — Woburn in 1972 and Wellesley in 1974 

— will have access to MDC supply as partial users upon com- 
pletion of connection lines, distribution, storage and pumping 
facilities By 1990. 24 municipalities may have no option 
other than MDC for supplementing local sources, according to 
the 1976 Environmental Impact Statement on river diversion 
prepared by the Army Corps of Engineers An MDC report to 
the Legislature in 1972 listed 41 communities as potentially 
requiring MDC water. Estimates of the prospective 1 990 defi- 
cit have ranged from 70 mgd to 1 75 mgd. including the needs 
of 34 district members. 1 communities in Central and West- 
ern Massachusetts served under special agreements and 
prospective users 



17 



Jack Maley. MDC 




Extensions to North, South Planned 

Preparations are already in various stages of progress for 
major water system extensions to the north and south of 
Boston affecting 1 2 communities where needs are either 
pressing in some cases or anticipated within five to 1 5 years. 

To the north a $1 .4 million pipeline has been completed 
between Woburn and the westerly shore of Spot Pond Reser- 
voir. Installation of pumping equipment at the Spot Pond sta- 
tion and a pipeline under the reservoir to implement the exten- 
sion are scheduled for a construction start in 1978. A $6 
million legislative authorization is being sought for other facili- 
ties required to serve Woburn, as well as a new pipeline to 
supplement flow and boost pressure for Stoneham and Wake- 
field, both present members of the Water District The pro- 
gram has been designed with sufficient capacity for eventual 
extensions to Reading and North Reading, the latter already 
beset by a water problem. 

Construction of facilities to serve seven communities south 
of Boston is awaiting completion of an environmental impact 
report and other steps required by the Executive Office of 
Environmental Affairs. The $1 7 million program, authorized by 
1 974 legislation, will provide service to six potential members, 



Jack Swedberg, Fisheries & Wildlife Div. 

QUABBIN RESERVOIR HAS MANY FACETS other than 
its primary function as a water source. Quabbin Park Ceme- 
tery was established for re-interment of 7500 bodies from 
34 cemeteries in the four towns taken for reservoir pur- 
poses, as well as for descendants and former residents. For 
public use are an observation tower, picnic tables and 
shore and boat fishing. Varied wildlife abounds, such as the 
bobcat and eagle pictured here. Also shown is the hydro- 
electric power station for generating energy from discharge 
of water required for low-flow augmentation of Swift River 
which is impounded as a major supply source for Quabbin. 



Avon, Braintree, Holbrook, Randolph, Stoughton and Wey- 
mouth, and an additional supply for Canton, presently a partial 
user member. Stoughton has already been confronted by a 
water crisis, while Avon is seeking an auxiliary supply. Studies 
have indicated the other communities will require a supple- 
mentary source within five to 1 5 years. In Stoughton a threat- 
ened moratorium on construction of multi-family housing has 
been averted by allowing Canton to share a portion of its MDC 
allotment with the town. The southern extension calls for 15 
miles of new water mains and a pumping station in the Ran- 
dolph section of Blue Hills Reservation, with Blue Hills Reser- 
voir serving as a major distribution facility. 

The way was cleared for the southern extension by activa- 
tion of the huge $19 million Dorchester Tunnel in 1975. The 
1 O-foot-diameter tunnel with 300 mgd capacity runs 6 !6 miles 
from Chestnut Hill at the Brighton-Brookline line to Dorchester 
Lower Mills. It was designed to boost pressure and supply for 
large areas of Boston and Brookline and for Quincy, Milton, 
Canton and Norwood. 

The tunnel was shut down for nearly five months until late 
February for inspection following indications of water seepage 
near Morton Street, Dorchester. The inspection revealed that 
cracks had developed in an area where geotechnical engi- 
neers found unusual geological formations that had apparently 
shifted and damaged the tunnel liner when water pressure was 
applied. A temporary plug was then installed to seal off the 
damaged section pending repairs and the remainder of the 
tunnel was restored to use. During the shut-down, water was 
supplied through distribution lines used prior to opening of the 
tunnel. 



18 



Jack Swedberg. Fisheries & Wildlife Div. 



Quabbin's Prescott Peninsula 
Site of Famed Observatory 

Eyes of the scientific world are watching eagerly 
for discoveries at a facility on an isolated site at Quab- 
bin Reservoir's Prescott Peninsula. 

It's the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 
where huge high-powered twin telescopes were dedi- 
cated last October. The $7.8 million installation 
houses the country's largest millimeter wave length 
radio telescope, which feeds radio waves from celes- 
tial objects into a computer for storage and evalua- 
tion. A meter telescope, in operation there since 
1970, analyzes electromagnetic radiation from pul- 
sars or neutron stars. Four 120-foot-diameter dishes 
are utilized to track emissions from space. 

The telescopes were placed at the remote site, five 
miles into the forest and 20 miles from Amherst, to 
avoid sounds and signals which can interfere with 
telescopic observations. This is another example of 
Quabbin's multiple use, which also includes recrea- 
tion opportunities, wildlife refuge, open space, and 
hydro-electric power. 



The costly burden of bacterial testing imposed on munici- 
palities under the Federal Clean Water Act. effective June 24. 
has been taken over by MDC laboratories. With the number of 
tests estimated at 1000 per month, the centralized service is 
expected to save Water District members S1 0.000 to 
$15,000 monthly in commercial laboratory fees At the same 
time, the program will eliminate much of MDC's distribution 
sampling Other types of analysis required by Federal law 
involving less frequent testing will be continued by the State 
Department of Environmental Quality Engineering. 

High Marks for Water Quality 

In recent surveys related to health problems. MDC water 
has earned high marks for its low level of salt and chloroform 
In comparison to the 20 parts per million (ppm) standard set 




Jack Maley MDC 



informally as too salty by state health authorities in relation to 
heart or hypertension conditions. MDC water contains only 5 
ppm in contrast to some local supplies running as high as 1 00 
ppm A nationwide water quality survey of chloroform content 
has shown the district's supply ranked among the best with 
only four parts per billion parts of water, compared to a high of 
31 1 in one mapr city Because of its high quality. MDC water 
requires only small amounts of chlorine and ammo 

The necessity for protecting water purity levels from con- 
tamination by trespassers has led to plans for relocating 
fences around Chestnut Hill Reservoir and building a 2 8-mile 
fence around Weston Reservoir Outside the fei 
park will be developed at Chestnut Hill while at Weston open 
land will be available for limited recreational use without dan- 
ger of pollution Both reservoirs have had senous problems 
with flagrant violations involving waste matter from ; 
pets, litter and even swimmers, endangering water quai '. 
resulting in many arrests 

Increased revenue is anticipated from s olus 

hydro-electric power generated at War 
reservoirs Based on a rate study rep 
planned to hike the rate set in long-term contracts with utility 
companies An analysis showed revenue, amounting to 
S1 62.793 in 1976 does not meet current cost of power 
production Nearly 31 million kilowatt hours of power were 
generated, with one million KWH utilized for MDC purp 



19 



Groundwork Underway for Huge Clean Water Program 



Preparations were underway during fiscal 1977 for imple- 
menting the biggest clean waters effort undertaken by the 
MDC and the most ambitious ever planned in New England. 

The $855 million pollution control program for Boston 
Harbor and the Charles and Neponset rivers is the outgrowth 
of a three-year Boston Harbor-Eastern Massachusetts Metro- 
politan Area study (EMMA) completed in 1 976. 

Principal recommendations call for upgrading the Deer 
Island and Nut Island treatment plants from primary to second- 
ary treatment, eliminating sludge discharge into the harbor, 
alleviating combined stormwater-sewage overflows, advanced 
treatment plants on the mid-Charles and upper Neponset riv- 
ers and extensions and improvements of MDC's sewerage 
system. Its cost would be financed 75% from Federal funds, 
1 5% by the State and 1 0% by the Metropolitan Sewerage 
District. 

EMMA's provisions presage a new era in pollution control 
and also satisfy rigid requirements of Federal Water Pollution 
Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500). Much of the 
groundwork has been laid for the facilities planning phase, 
which awaits completion of Environmental Impact Statements 
(EIS) on EMMA's proposed facilities and alternatives being 
prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 

The EIS outcome will settle a number of issues and finally 
crystalize EMMA's direction, such as whether to build and 
where to locate advanced treatment satellite plants on the 
Charles and Neponset rivers. A by-product of the satellite 
proposal would be discharge of reclaimed wastewater to 
augment river flow, as well as relieving the overburdened Nut 
Island plant. Another question involves secondary treatment 
facilities proposed for both harbor treatment plants, which now 
may be combined at Deer Island. Newly-enacted state legisla- 
tion has precluded the controversial landfill plan in Quincy Bay 
for expanding Nut Island to accommodate secondary treat- 
ment. A separate EIS on sludge disposal is also under review. 

EMMA Timetable Set 

A timetable for implementing EMMA was developed last 
August under a joint pollution discharge elimination and 
enforcement compliance schedule promulgated by the EPA 
and the State Division of Water Pollution Control. The sched- 
ule stipulates construction completion by 1 986 of 1 2 major 
projects representing the bulk of the program. A number of 
miscellaneous interceptors and pumping stations would be fin- 
ished by the year 2000 under the EMMA schedule. The MDC 
noted in the agreement, however, that compliance must be 
contingent upon project authorizations and appropriations, 
timely completion of environmental impact statements and 
expeditious review and approval of grant applications. 

In preparation for the go-ahead from EPA, state legislation 
was enacted last October to finance engineering work for the 
1 2 major EMMA recommendations and actual construction of 





THE EMMA PROGRAM 








Completion Cost, 


Millions 






Date ' ofdollars u) 


1. 


Elimination of sludge discharges 








into the harbor from Deer Island and 








Nut Island treatment plants 


1980 


$ 26 


2. 


Combined sewer overflow abatement in 








Dorchester Bay 


1983 


77 


3. 


Nut Island primary expansion 


1984 


50 


4. 


Nut Island secondary treatment 


1985 


87 


5. 


Deer Island primary expansion 


1984 


42 


6. 


Deer Island secondary treatment 


1984 


150 


7. 


Additional facilities for secondary 








sludge management 


1985 


28 


8. 


Satellite treatment plant discharging 
to the middle Charles River (or transport 
to and further expansion of Nut Island 
Treatment Plant)' 3 ' 








1984 


50 


9. 


Satellite treatment plant discharging to 
the upper Neponset River (or transport 
to and further expansion of Nut Island 
Treatment Plant)* 35 








1984 


41 


10. 


Combined sewer overflow abatement in 
the Charles River (Back Bay Fens and 








Muddy River) 


1983 


84 


11. 


Combined sewer overflow abatement in 








the Neponset River 


1983 


23 


12. 


Combined sewer overflow abatement in 








the Inner Harbor 


1986 


86 




Others: Interceptors and pumping 








stations 


1975-2000 


111 




Total 




$855 


(1) 


Completion dates are stipulated in the Federal-State pollution discharge 




elimination schedule of August 1976. 






(2) 


Costs shown are in millions of dollars based 


on January 1975 (ENR 2200) 




prices and include engineering and contingencies. 




(3) 


Costs are given for the former case. 







three of the projects. Underway is an analysis of inflow-infiltra- 
tion in the Deer Island and Nut Island service areas concerning 
groundwater seepage into sewer lines and inflow from illegal 
sewer connections, as required by EPA. An evaluation of alter- 
natives for management, staffing and coordination, and devel- 
opment of a computerized tracking system is nearing comple- 
tion. And the selection process has begun in designating 
consultants for the facilities planning phase on projects to 
abate combined sewer overflows affecting Dorchester Bay, 
Charles River Basin, Neponset Estuary and Boston Inner 
Harbor. 

In other steps to satisfy Federal requirements, MDC has 
completed a user charge/industrial cost recovery study, 
drafted revised sewer use regulations and is continuing work 
on an industrial waste survey. A new system of sewer use 
charges by cities and towns and revised MDC assessments 
have also been provided by state legislation enacted in 1975 
to establish MDC eligibility for Federal and State sewerage 
works grants and applying also to sewerage projects built by 
municipalities with Federal aid. The new law's provisions for 
revised MDC debt assessments became effective July 1 , 



20 




Jack Maley, MDC 



NEW CHARLES RIVER DAM is in its final phase, with 
completion scheduled for the spring of 1978. The 
1200-foot facility will contain a flood control pumping sta- 
tion, three navigation locks, a police patrol boat building, 
fishway for up-river access and a walkway viewing area. It 
will also enlarge the river basin by 30 acres and minimize 
intrusion of pollutant salt water. A park area on the Charles- 
town side is included in the plans. The facilities are being 
built by the Army Corps of Engineers in cooperation with 
MDC. 

1976 and for operations and maintenance on July 1. 1977. 
Sewer use charges and industrial cost recovery will be 
required when projects eligible for grants are completed. 

Meanwhile, an ongoing improvement program in the 
Charles River Basin made substantial progress toward clean 
water goals aimed at enhancing enjoyment of passive recrea- 
tion, boating and fishing. A maior pollution source — over- 
flows of combined stormwater and sewage — is being corn- 
batted by building large-capacity interceptor sewer lines 
augmented by storm detention and chlonnation stations. 

Construction is well underway on the S21 million Charles 
River Marginal Conduit Proiect designed to alleviate pollution 
in the lower basin. These facilities will also abate pollutant 
overflows in the one-half mile expansion of the basin created 
by the new $35 million Charles River Dam structure adiacent 
to the Central Artery, slated for completion in April 1978 

A key element of the marginal conduit proiect will be a 
storm detention and chlonnation plant and pumping station on 
the East Cambridge shoreline Work began early in 1977 on 
the $12 3 million facility scheduled for completion in late 
1979 Two other phases are well advanced Nearly finished is 
a $3 6 million force main, eight feet in diameter, which will 
discharge treated effluent from the proiected storm detention- 
chlorination station into the harbor below the new dam. 
regardless of the tide level. The contract includes an additional 
1 8-inch force main to carry screenings and sanitary sewage 
from the station to the Charlestown interceptor for treatment at 




POLLUTION CONTROL measures include this typical 
8-foot diameter sewer pipe to be installed in the Charles 
River Marginal Conduit Project at the lower basin. 

Deer Island. Another $4 8 million contract with a 1979 com- 
pletion date provides for large interceptor sewers to divert 
overflows from Boston. Cambridge and Somerville marginal 
conduits to the detention-treatment station 

Besides its flood control purpose and triple locks to facili- 
tate heavy marine traffic, the new Charles River Dam has a 
pollution abatement function — minimizing salt water intrusion 
into the basin flowing through the single boat lock at the exist- 
ing dam built in 1 908 The saline layer, devoid of oxygen and 
highly polluted, remains in stratified form on the basin bottom 
This prevents vertical mixing and aeration, stifles fish and 
plant life and produces hydrogen sulfide gas odors at times A 
remedy for the problem will be completed m the spring of 
1978 under a $534,583 contract for installing compressed 
air diffusers in strategic deep portions of the basin This de- 
stratification process will force salt water from the river bottom 
to mix with oxygenated water at upper levels, insuring the 
presence of oxygen throughout the water column The diffus- 
ers will be turned off when the water is thoroughly mixed and 
utilized again only when signs of stratification are detected 

Sewerage System Expansion 

Upriver. the final segment of a maior North Charles inter- 
ceptor on the Cambridge shoreline, near Memorial Drive is 
due for completion in a few months The new $16 8 million 
interceptor containing pipes as big as 8' feet in diameter 
stretches three miles from Mam Street to the vicinity of Mt 
Auburn Hospital supplementing 20 miles of relief sewers built 
in recent years on the South Charles 

The interceptors on both shorelines were designed to 
enlarge existing capacity carrying wastewater to Deer Island 
for treatment and they also tie in with the d Cottage 

Farm Stormwater Treatment Station in C ■ BU 

Bridge This innovative facility is similar to the storm detention- 



21 



chlorination station being built in the lower basin as part of the 
Charles River Marginal Conduit Project and others planned 
under the EMMA program to deal with combined sewer over- 
flows affecting Dorchester Bay, Neponset Estuary, Boston 
Inner Harbor and the Fens-Muddy River area in the Back Bav. 

During storms the Cottage Farm prototype plant intercepts 
and treats overflows of combined sewage and stormwater 
from 26 discharge points on both banks of the basin. The 
process provides for screening, settling and chlorination 
before discharging effluent from holding tanks into the river 
and subsequent disposal of pollutant solids into sewer lines for 
treatment at Deer Island. In 1977 the plant was activated 33 
times during storms, 1 2 of which were entirely contained by 
the facility's holding tanks with no discharge to the river. A 
total of 468 million gallons was diverted to the station for proc- 
essing. The facility has shown significant results in removing 
solids and harmful bacteria before discharge to the basin at an 
estimated cost of $293 per million gallons treated. 

The Charles River cleanup will appreciably supplement 
current activity on upgrading the quality of Boston Harbor 
waters. 

An important harbor program — rehabilitation of approxi- 
mately 100 defective tidegates to alleviate pollution and pre- 
vent salt water intrusion into the sewerage system — has 
been virtually completed at a cost of $1.1 million. The faulty 
tidegates in the Boston main drainage system, East Boston 
and Chelsea have allowed sea water to flow into sewers, caus- 
ing flushing of sewage into the harbor on tide cycles and intru- 
sion of corrosive salt water into sewer lines leading to Deer 
Island treatment plant. The salt water reduction has improved 
plant operation and maintenance as well as production of 
methane gas for energy use. The tidegates will revert to the 
two cities for operation and maintenance. 

In another aspect of the harbor problem, proposed inciner- 
ation of sludge from the Deer Island and Nut Island plants is 
under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. Mean- 
while, an experiment is underway to test a unique high energy 
electron irradiation method of disinfecting sludge and waste- 
water. The pilot program is jointly financed by MDC, National 
Science Foundation and State Division of Water Pollution Con- 
trol, and is being operated by MIT and High Voltage Engineer- 
ing Corp. A small-scale sludge composting study is also 
planned to determine compost characteristics as a non-agri- 
cultural soil conditioner or loam substitute and yield samples 
for testing by potential users, such as commercial green- 
houses and park departments. 

Preparations are proceeding for a $12.3 million construc- 
tion program to expand capacity of the sewerage system in 
three areas. Work will begin in 1978 on a $3.9 million 
enlargement of the existing sewer line siphon at the Quincy- 
Weymouth Fore River Bridge, tripling existing capacity to 63 
mgd for flows from Braintree, Randolph and Weymouth. Two 
1800-foot pipes of 60 and 54-inch diameter will be installed 
at a lower level, 58 feet below mean low water in the newly- 
deepened channel which has been dredged to accommodate 
large shipping vessels, as required by Federal regulations. 
Construction is scheduled in 1 979 on expansion of the Read- 
ing pumping station and increasing capacity of sewer lines 



serving Reading, Stoneham and Wakefield by 14 mgd at a 
cost of $3 million. A $5.4 million relief sewer accommodating 
2.5 mgd additional flow to relieve an overloaded line serving 
sections of Brookline, Newton and West Roxbury is in the early 
design stage. 

Industrial waste inspections for determining adherence to 
MDC and Federal requirements have now covered 1957 
industries in 1 6 of the Metropolitan Sewerage District's 43 
cities and towns, supplementing a prior questionnaire survey 
of all member communities. Violations were found in 160 
industries which are presently pre-treating, implementing pre- 
treatment or modifying their systems to comply with stand- 
ards. Additionally, all known metal platers and latex proces- 
sors have been inspected. The program was undertaken as a 
requirement of the permits issued by EPA to MDC for the Deer 
Island and Nut Island plants under the National Pollution Dis- 
charge Elimination System. 

A deadline of December 31,1 979 has been set for phas- 
ing out agreements allowing 1 4 communities outside the Sew- 
erage District to discharge septic tank and cesspool waste into 
the MDC system. The interim arrangement originated in 1 974 
as a crack-down on illegal discharge into MDC sewers by 
disposal companies. Based on a per capita charge for non- 
sewered population of these non-members, the program has 
yielded $1 52,000 in fiscal 1 977. 

Flood Control Projects 

Flood control projects totaling $9 million were active during 
1977, in addition to the nearly-completed new Charles River 
Dam. 

A $5.9 million pumping station at the Amelia Earhart Dan, 
is now in readiness just below the confluence of the Mystic 
and Maiden rivers. The installation, equipped with pumping 
capacity of nearly two million gallons per minute, is designed 
to cope with ma|or storms, particularly for pumping during 
high tides. A fish ladder has been incorporated to facilitate 
passage of fish upstream from the dam. 

On Mother Brook in Boston and Dedham, work has begun 
on a $488,654 program to protect built-up areas from flood 
damage, develop passive recreation, such as walkways, fish- 
ing and boating, and improve the area's aesthetics. The con- 
tract provides for restoration of two ponds, a pedestrian bridge 
over Mill Pond Dam in Hyde Park, dredging a portion of the 
brook, repairs of three dams and a general cleanup. The his- 
toric 3te-mile waterway running between the Charles and 
Neponset rivers was the first canal dug in America by English 
settlers for industrial power purposes. 

Construction is scheduled in a few months on two flood 
control projects in the downtown Maiden area. One provides 
for extending the enclosure of Spot Pond Brook an additional 
1 1 00 feet to its confluence with Maiden River at a cost of 
$685,000. The other is a $2 million project for enclosing 
1 200 feet of Maiden River as part of the city's redevelopment 
program. 



22 



Big Bridge Program Planned, 
Safety Projects Progressing 



Significant progress toward replacement or reconstruction 
of heavily-traveled bridges highlighted 1977 activity on 
improving MDC's 168-mile network of parkways and road- 
ways. 

A large-scale bridge program involves several major struc- 
tures weakened by age or by a shift from an original designa- 
tion for pleasure vehicles only to general traffic, including 
heavy trucks in excess of design capacity. Field inspection of 
MDC's 87 bridges has shown also that many others were in 
need of repairs. Through a cooperative effort with the State 
Department of Public Works (DPW), substantial Federal funds 
will be tapped for much of this work. 

In conjunction with the inter-agency program, DPW next 
year will start a $3.5 million project to replace the superstruc- 
ture of Wellington Bridge carrying Route 28-Fellsway traffic 
over Mystic River at the Somerville-Medford line. Emergency 
repairs have kept the structure in service in recent years, with 
a ban against trucks. Design work has begun by DPW on 
replacing the Harvard Bridge superstructure over the Charles 
River. In other DPW-MDC projects, work was completed dur- 
ing the year on Bussey Street Bridge over Mother Brook in 
Dedham costing $190,000 and River Street Bridge in the 
Hyde Park section of Boston, $234,500, both with Federal 
aid. 

Construction is scheduled in 1 978 on replacement of Gen- 
eral Lawrence Bridge spanning Mystic River at Veterans 
Memorial Parkway, Medford, near Route 93 expressway. The 
new concrete arch structure, estimated at $6 million, will be 
built on a new alignment followed by demolition of the existing 
bridge where truck weight restrictions have been in effect. 
Work will begin late in 1977 on a $755,000 repair |ob at 
Dorchester Bay Bridge, Morrissey Boulevard. Both projects 
will be performed under MDC contracts. In the design stage is 
reconstruction of the truss bridge on Alewife Brook Parkway, 
Cambridge, running over railroad tracks. 

Recognizing the importance of expert surveillance. MDC 
has assigned 1 4 employees, including two Metropolitan Police 
divers, to attend a special course on bridge inspection. 

In the interests of motorist and pedestrian safety and 
smoother traffic flow, more than $2 million was expended on 
19 projects modernizing lighting, resurfacing, guard rails and 
traffic signals. Nearly one-half of this expenditure was for 
resurfacing roadways and upgrading sidewalks and drainage 
in various locations. Guard rail installations included an impor- 
tant safety project on a one-mile stretch of Storrow Drive and 
Soldiers Field Road costing $168,000. A $512,213 street- 
lighting contract was completed on Veterans of Foreign Wars 
Parkway, West Roxbury, replacing an outmoded 40-year-old 
system along a three-mile section, where 367 laminated 
wooden standards were installed to blend with the parkway 




Kevin O Malley. MDC 

VERSATILE INSPECTION EQUIPMENT has been uti- 
lized for close examination of MDC bridges to detect struc- 
tural problems requiring attention. 



environment. Construction is nearly finished on a $271,569 
lighting system along three miles of Charles River Embank- 
ment walkways between B U Bridge and Leverett Circle. 
Boston. 

Installation has been completed on 1 1 flashing warning 
signs, activated by electronic-eye laser beams, designed to 
forestall trucks from inadvertently entering Storrow Drive. Sol- 
diers Field Road and Memorial Drive and lamming at low-level 
underpasses or bridges with resultant massive traffic tieups 

As a traffic safety measure. 1 000 new-type, high-visability. 
reflector lane markers have been installed at accident-prone 
locations on five key parkways and bridges to test their effec- 
tiveness These are a more sophisticated variation of a pre- 
vious installation, which have been provided at no additional 
cost The reflectors proiect slightly above the road surl 
retract when struck by a vehicle and spring back into : 
The units are designed to supplement or replace painted lines 



23 








Boston Globe 




Police Overcome Racial Crisis in 'Open Beach' Issue 



The 1977 summer season posed a major racial crisis for 
Metropolitan District Police in upholding the principle that all 
people have a right to use a public beach. 

For two weeks of repeated tense confrontations on the 
sands of South Boston's Carson Beach, the police and MDC 
officials stood firmly against challenges that threatened con- 
stantly to break into massive violence. 

The perilous atmosphere developed when scores of black 
and Spanish-speaking residents of the nearby Columbia Point 
housing project congregated on the beach. Leaders declared 
they were asserting their right to use the beach without ha- 
rassment. Some South Boston community spokesman 
described their presence as a deliberate attempt to provoke 
an incident related to civil rights. A white group gathered and 
a shouting match and racial slurs ensued. A line of police 
separated the factions and violence was averted. 

The scene was reenacted in many additional confronta- 
tions and sporadic skirmishes during the next two weeks, 
marked by stone-throwing, scattered physical encounters and 
verbal harassment. At times, the explosive situation was con- 
trolled by police lines separating the two groups or clearing the 
beach of trouble-makers. 



By time confrontations tapered off two weeks later, more 
than 50 arrests had piled up, including two blacks, on charges 
of assault on police, refusing to obey police orders or being 
disorderly persons. Several minor injuries had been reported 
but no crowd violence had occurred. At times the presence of 
Metropolitan Police rose to 200 riot-equipped men, including 
mounted police, motorcycle officers and boats, backed up by 
a large reserve of Boston officers. FBI agents appeared on the 
scene as observers. Top state and city officials expressed 
concern and deplored "trouble-makers." MDC conferences 
with both sides helped to smooth antagonisms while remain- 
ing firmly behind beach rights for all people. 

Finally, the situation was cooled by the pressure of official 
voices, public opinion and a meeting of two South Boston 
community organizations, where leaders called for avoidance 
of confrontations. 

The principle of "a beach open to all" had been 
reaffirmed. 

Meanwhile, the future of the Metropolitan District Police as 
a separate force has been assured through a decision by Gov- 
ernor Michael Dukakis rejecting a management task force's 
recommendation to shift functions to other law enforcement 



24 




Jack Maley. MDC 

METROPOLITAN POLICE IN ACTION illustrates some of 
its diversified functions. From left to right: Coping with a 
racial crisis at Carson Beach, South Boston, police lines 
keep apart factions to avoid threat of violence. Tow truck in 
MDC's motorist aid patrol and police unit team up to expe- 
dite removal of disabled vehicle and minimize traffic tieup. 
Underwater recovery unit in search of Charles River that 
yielded gun used in Somerville homicide. Police go to the 
rescue of boys drifting on ice floes off Morrissey Boulevard. 




agencies, primarily at the municipal level, as an economy 
measure. The change, however, would have imposed a finan- 
cial burden on local taxpayers in the Parks District, for 67% of 
MDC Police costs is paid from the state highway fund and only 
33% by the district's municipalities. 

Simultaneously, a public safety council was established by 
executive order for improved coordination among MDC and 
other law enforcement agencies Steps also have been taken 
in establishing concurrent jurisdiction with local departments in 
certain MDC areas. 

Beefing up police strength has now begun following a job 
freeze in recent years which diminished personnel about 1 50 
below the 655 authorized positions The force has been bol- 
stered by 1 9 new officers. A recruit class of 39 is scheduled 
for next year Additionally, officers have been relieved for 
other duties by authorization to increase part-time school- 
crossing guards from 23 to 53 and employment of 1 women 
clerks at headquarters. In selecting new officers, the screening 
process has been upgraded by adoption of professional psy- 
chological testing. 

Mounting problems in protecting MDC reservoirs and 
watershed areas in Central Massachusetts against trespass- 
ers, swimmers and other hazards to water supply have led to 
plans for a permanent detachment of 1 1 officers in Clinton at 
Wachusett Reservoir, effective July 15. 1977. Besides patrol 
duties covering MDC property in 1 communities, officers will 
respond to calls for assistance from local departments as a 
"good neighbor" gesture The unit is similar to one estab- 



lished many years ago at Quabbin Reservoir. MDC's principal 
water supply source. Bomb threats prior to President Carter s 
March 1 6 visit to Clinton led to heavy MDC Police security at 
Wachusett Reservoir and its dam, utilizing boats and helicop- 
ters. Trespassing offenses have kept police busy also at the 
Chestnut Hill and Spot Pond distribution reservoirs near 
Boston. 

New techniques for sharpening police operations are con- 
tinuing. A defensive driving course has been established for 
recruits and as part of the in-service training program for vet- 
eran officers Participation in a staged mock bus disaster has 
provided expertise in coping with such emergencies For 
motorcycle officers a highly-sophisticated small radar gun has 
been adopted to provide an instant reading of vehicle speed 

At MDC's Police Academy, in-service training during the 
past year has stressed upgrading of first responder" medical 
skills, such as cardio-pulmonary resuscitation A stringent new 
law requiring costly equipment and highly-advanced training 
of personnel has resulted in a phase-out of ambulance ser- 
vice. As an effective substitute, agreements have been made 
with qualified private and municipal ambulance services to 
cover departmental jurisdiction MDC vehicles are being used 
only in cases of minor m|unes or illness or when no other 
ambulance is available or in the event of a catastrophe in 
which sufficient certified ambulances are unavailable 

In its first full year s operation, a motorist aid program 
designed to alleviate traffic tieups has recorded 4 751 respon- 
ses by emergency units on a 7 ;-mile stretch of Central Artery 



25 






It Was One of Those Years 
For Testing Police Versatility 



There's no lack of off-beat demands testing the 
versatility of Metropolitan District Police, and the past 
year was no exception. 

Two men spotted digging contaminated clams in a 
restricted Weymouth area touched off a chase that 
finally involved the plane normally used by Metropoli- 
tan Police for traffic observation, a police boat and a 
cruiser crew. The pair was finally apprehended after 
fleeing through clam flats, by boat through Hingham 
Bay and eventually to Peddocks Island. 

In another pursuit, MDC and Coast Guard boats 
teamed up to capture three men in a bullet-punc- 
tuated chase in Boston Harbor, following a report that 
the trio had fired at a commuter boat near Kelly's 
Landing in South Boston. MDC Police also manned 
their amphibious craft in a major storm to patrol 
storm-flooded roadways on the North Shore and 
South Shore. And then there was the hot summer day 
when the contents of a large meat truck were in dan- 
ger of spoiling, following a collision on the Southeast 
Expressway. Emergency police action produced a 
load of dry ice and saved the cargo. 



and Southeast Expressway. The system combines police 
aerial observation for prompt spotting of disabled cars and 
accidents with use of two radio-equipped tow trucks operated 
by MDC's Central Services Division, heavy-duty police cruis- 
ers fitted with push-bars and motorcycle officers. For truck 
breakdowns heavy tow equipment is available. The express- 
way units operate during peak traffic hours between 6:30 and 
9:30 A.M. and 3:30 and 6:30 P.M. MDC has police jurisdic- 
tion over the area, while the State Department of Public Works 
is responsible for maintenance. 

Expressway traffic control was complicated during the 
summer by reconstruction of the Massachusetts Avenue inter- 
change and elevated south-bound lanes in the vicinity. In 
effect, also, during morning peak hours was an express lane 
northbound on the Southeast Expressway, between the Brain- 
tree-Quincy line and intown Boston, exclusively for buses and 
cars with three or more passengers. 

The traditional role of providing assistance to other police 
agencies was extended to training officers and dogs from five 
communities in a 1 4-week program by MDC's K-9 unit, as well 
as "keep-sharp" retraining for teams from five other cities and 
towns. Other forms of aid were furnished on 1 544 occasions 
during the year, including a number of local emergencies such 
as large-scale disturbances at youth gatherings, racial con- 
flicts at Boston schools, major fires, a labor union clash at a 
construction site and a rampage by State Prison inmates at a 



Superior Court session. 

The summer season brought a crackdown on drinking at 
beaches, mostly during evening hours, netting a record num- 
ber of arrests for rowdyism and other disturbances involving 
youthful groups. Supplementary manpower from the highly- 
mobile Traffic-Oriented Patrol Squad (TOPS) was utilized to 
deal with the problem and assure orderly conditions for beach- 
goers. 

Expertise of the Detective Unit has been recognized by 
participation of personnel in four crime-fighting agencies in 
Metropolitan Boston. Two men have been assigned to a hard- 
hitting unit in the Suffolk County District Attorney's office, 
dealing with political corruption, organized crime and white 
collar criminals. Another has been recruited by the Norfolk 
County District Attorney for his campaign against white collar 
crime. The others are working with an interagency force aimed 
at diversion and illegal sale of drugs by wholesalers, doctors 
and druggists, described as one of the most successful in the 
country, and the Metropolitan Enforcement Group's North 
Shore Unit which has netted numerous arrests for narcotic 
offenses. The Diversion Unit was involved in an interstate 
cooperative effort which led to an $8 million seizure of stolen 
hard drugs in Rhode Island, one of the biggest in history. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 977, Metropolitan 
District Police investigated 5363 crimes, 2063 of which were 
relatively serious. Nearly 50% of the crimes were closed by 
arrests. In the same period, there were 4894 motor vehicle 
accidents within MDC jurisdiction. Law enforcement and acci- 
dent prevention efforts piled up 46,736 citations, nearly 
20,000 above the preceding year. Police recovered 1256 
stolen motor vehicles of which 849 were taken from MDC 
roadways. Stolen property recovered was valued at nearly 
$2.5 million. Assistance was furnished to the general public 
on 17,833 occasions, as well as 243 responses for aid in 
delivery of blood or vital medical supplies to area hospitals. 

Highly-trained patrol officers on call for specialized duties 
have been frequently utilized. These men have responded 51 
times for scuba underwater recovery assignments and as 
bomb disposal experts on 13 occasions. Similarly, the K-9 
unit filled 33 requests for services. 

The popularity of MDC's harbor islands and growing ma- 
rine traffic in the nearby harbor waters and on the Charles and 
Mystic rivers continue to require considerable police patrol 
activity. Visitors voyaging to Georges, Lovell's and Peddocks 
islands during the 1977 season exceeded 300,000, accord- 
ing to police estimates. Seven officers manning two patrol 
boats made 3691 trips to the islands, mainly Georges. In 
addition to normal enforcement duties, the officers performed 
a great variety of services, including seven persons rescued, 
42 search and rescue missions, 92 persons assisted, 23 
transported to hospitals, first aid rendered to 542 persons, 26 
boats towed, 210 boat inspections and response to eight 
island fires. 



26 



How MDC Organization Delivers Regional Services 



The Metropolitan District Commission's concept is based 
on the belief that communities in Metropolitan Boston can 
derive greater benefits with more efficiency and lower costs 
through regional operation of parks, water and sewerage 
systems. 

It has become increasingly evident that many facets of 
urban life and the environment can be developed and adminis- 
tered most effectively without regard for municipal boundaries. 

This trend originated in 1 889 with the creation of the Met- 
ropolitan Sewerage Commission as the nation's first legally- 
constituted metropolitan district. Then came the Metropolitan 
Parks District in 1 893 and the Metropolitan Water Board in 
1895. The three agencies were consolidated into the Metro- 
politan District Commission in 1 91 9 for greater efficiency and 
economy. 

MDC operations are governed by a five-member Commis- 
sion. A Commissioner named by the Secretary of Environmen- 
tal Affairs, subject to the Governor's approval, serves as full- 
time executive and administrative head of the agency. Four 
part-time Associate Commissioners appointed by the Gover- 
nor join the Commissioner at weekly meetings in setting pol- 
icy, approving contracts and participating in decisions on 
departmental operations. The Commissioner and Associate 
Commissioners each have an equal vote, except that "con- 
currence of the Commissioner and of not less than two Asso- 
ciate Commissioners shall be required for the execution of 
contracts and of such other official actions of the Commission 
as may be required by law." 

The Reorganization Act of 1969 establishing a cabinet 
system placed MDC under the jurisdiction of the Executive 
Office of Environmental Affairs. 

As a department of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
MDC is under the jurisdiction of the Governor and Legislature, 
including approval of its operations budget and bond issues 
for capital construction. 

To keep cities and towns informed about activities, public 
hearings are required annually for municipal officials in the 
Parks, Sewerage and Water Districts regarding improvements, 
extensions, new facilities and financial data. 

Departmental operations are performed by seven divisions: 
Engineering, Sewerage. Water. Parks, Police, Environmental 
Planning and Environmental Quality. These divisions report to 
the department's Chief Engineer 

The organizational structure includes five administrative or 
staff units: Commission Secretary. General Counsel, Commis- 
sioner's Office, Special Projects and Central Services 

Major support services are assigned to the Central Ser- 
vices Division These include purchase and maintenance of 
motorized equipment, bulk purchase of supplies, sign produc- 
tion, maintenance of MDC headquarters building, police sta- 
tions and Commission-owned homes and acquiring special 



Personnel Evaluation System 
Aims at Better Performance 



■ 



Groundwork has been laid for a sophisticated 
personnel evaluation system aimed at improving 
employee efficiency and sharpening managerial level 
techniques. 

Plans call for computerizing semi-annual perform- 
ance records as a basis for promotions, annual salary 
increments, reassignment, discipline and discharge. 
Initial phases of the program have identified cases of 
absenteeism, poor work performance and under-utili- 
zation, as well as potential problem areas. In-service 
training of MDC managerial employees in basic man- 
agement, goal-setting, motivation and optimum use of 
personnel evaluations is scheduled for the coming 
year. 

It is anticipated that MDC s personnel system will 
become a positive model for other state agencies in 
upgrading personnel standards. 

equipment for emergency operations Central Services crews 
operate two tow trucks for prompt removal of disabled vehi- 
cles from the Central and Southeast expressways to minimize 
traffic backup during peak hours. An additional tow truck and 
two road service vans are available for further emergency use 
An extra-heavy-duty tow truck is on standby for handling large 
trucks and removing vehicles from waterways 

An in-house Project Analysis Board reviews proposed 
projects and submits recommendations to the Commission A 
Land Board, another in-house unit, establishes priorities for 
land acquisition and recommends action on land use sales, 
parks development and related matters 

All legal aspects of the agency's functions are supervised 
by the Office of General Counsel, such as drafting legal opin- 
ions, contracts, proposed legislation, directives and rules and 
regulations, dealing with public bidding procedure, conducting 
or participating in quasi-|udicial hearings in the areas of per- 
sonnel, labor relations and police administration, and advising 
the Commission on various questions of law 

The legal process of land takings, easements and convey- 
ances is performed by the Right of Way Section for re 
tional. flood control, sewerage and water supply purposes 
Permits, easements, deeds and other types of instruments are 
also processed, along with maintaining and updating a land 
inventory The section has an enforcement unit which deals 
with encroachment on MDC lands, pollution of nve r 
streams and other similar violations 

A Planning Section is primarily concerned with park and 



27 



recreational development, roadway system improvements, 
landscaping and open space acquisition. 

The Financial Office operates a data-processing unit for 
payroll and other departmental uses, processes all receipts 
and disbursements, maintains fiscal records and serves as the 
department's accounting office. 

Interviews and job placement functions are handled by a 
Personnel Office, which also negotiates collective bargaining 
agreements, maintains personnel records, co-ordinates enroll- 
ment in training courses and conducts an alcoholic rehabilita- 
tion program. 

A reference library serves as a source of historical data, 
publications, reports and other information. 

OPERATING DIVISIONS 

ENGINEERING 

The Engineering Division is responsible for planning, engi- 
neering and supervising construction of most facilities required 
by the Water and Sewerage divisions, flood control and drain- 
age and major Parks District projects. The division's chief con- 
struction engineer also has administrative management and 
engineering oversight of the Parks Engineering Section, which 
was formerly a separate division. Completed facilities are 
turned over to operating divisions for maintenance and 
operation. 

Nineteen contracts amounting to $1 3.9 million were 
awarded during fiscal 1 977. Work was still in progress or con- 
tracts were completed totaling $21 .8 million for 16 projects 
begun in prior years. Additionally, work was in progress on the 
new Charles River Dam under a $35 million contract in coop- 
eration with the Army Corps of Engineers which is supervising 
the project. 

Personnel in the Parks Engineering Section are engaged in 
various Parks District projects involving designing, engineering 
services, contract document preparation and supervision of 
new construction, as well as major repairs of park and recrea- 
tion facilities, roadways, bridges, drawbridges and locks, 
street lighting and traffic controls. Upon completion, new facili- 
ties come under the jurisdiction of the Parks Division for opera- 
tion and routine maintenance. Twenty-three contracts were 
awarded for Parks District work during the fiscal year totaling 
$3.4 million. There were 17 additional contracts previously 
awarded and still active or completed in fiscal 1977, amount- 
ing to $5.9 million. 

Other Engineering Division activities consist of land sur- 
veys, hydraulic investigations of water and sewer lines; river 
hydraulics, materials testing, water and sewage analysis, 
photographic work and aerial photography, architectural ser- 
vices, landscaping, park and recreational developments; legal 
assistance, preparation of contracts, review and selection of 



consultant submittals, and participation on committees for 
land acquisition, solid waste, water resources, environmental 
impacts, water quality and project analyses. 

WATER 

The purpose of the Water Division is to furnish pure water 
to local distribution systems of communities in the Metropoli- 
tan Water District and such other cities and towns as can be 
reasonably supplied. 

Twenty-five communities receive their entire water supply 
and seven a partial supply, with an area of 309 square miles 
and 1 ,836,240 population. The City of Woburn (pop. 35,330) 
was admitted as the 33rd member in 1972 as a partial user, 
but will not be linked to the system until completion of a new 
pipeline and pumping facilities. The Town of Wellesley (pop. 
26,590), which became the 34th member in 1974, has a 
"readiness to serve" agreement and plans to rely on its own 
supply for the present. Ten communities in Central Massachu- 
setts located near MDC reservoirs and aqueducts are supplied 
in whole or in part under special agreements. 

The Water District's sources are the Quabbin, Wachusett 
and Sudbury watersheds and the runoff of the Ware River 
watershed during certain periods. Storage reservoirs on these 
watersheds have a capacity of 495 billion gallons, principally 
at Quabbin Reservoir with its capacity of 412 billion gallons 
and Wachusett's 67 billion gallons. 

The water supply is delivered to Metropolitan Boston 
through 131 miles of aqueducts and tunnels and distributed 
via approximately 260 miles of pipelines, mostly by gravity 
flow. 

Facilities under control of the Water Division include six 
storage reservoirs with 467 square miles of tributary 
watershed, a water surface of 30,000 acres, four hydro-elec- 
tric power stations, 1 6 miles of high tension power transmis- 
sion lines, 1 2 distribution pumping stations to service high 
elevations and 1 6 distribution reservoirs with a capacity of 3.1 
billion gallons. 

Five contracts for construction work, maintenance or 
repairs were awarded during fiscal 1 977 for a total of 
$241 , 1 46. Work was still in progress on three contracts 
awarded in 1 976 totaling $1 ,471 ,851 . 

SEWERAGE 

An intricate sewerage and treatment system is under the 
jurisdiction of the Sewerage Division. Its vast sewage collec- 
tion and pollution abatement functions require maintenance 
and operation of 1 pumping stations, two treatment plants, 
four pre-treatment headworks, a detention and chlorination 
station for combined stormwater and sewage overflows along 
Charles River Basin and 226 miles of trunk sewers. 

Forty-three cities and towns covering 406 square miles, 



28 



with 2,180,074 inhabitants and a contributing population of 
1 ,998,540, are members of the Sewerage District. Wastewa- 
ter flows through 5181 miles of local sewers connected to 
MDC trunk lines at 1814 locations, an increase of 35 miles 
over the previous year. The municipal lines link 403,788 indi- 
vidual connections with the MDC system, an increase of 3094 
in the past year. Per capita cost of sewerage operations in 
1977 was $9.39 of which $5.54 was for maintenance and 
operations and $3.85 for debt service. 

Average daily sewage load was 440 million gallons and 
the 24-hour maximum flow was 819 mgd passing through 
primary treatment and chlorination at Deer Island and Nut 
Island plants before discharge via outfalls into outer Boston 
Harbor. The process provides screening and grit removal, pre- 
chlorination, pre-aeration, primary sedimentation and post 
chlorination. Raw sludge is treated by thickening and high rate 
digestion prior to discharge, producing a by-product of meth- 
ane gas utilized for electrical power and heating. 

There were 26 contracts awarded by the division or in 
force during fiscal 1977 totaling $2.5 million, including $1.6 
million for inflow/infiltration studies related to the Deer Island 
and Nut Island service areas and three sewer relief line 
projects. 

PARKS-RECREATION 

The Parks and Recreation Division is responsible for 
maintenance of extensive Parks District property and supervis- 
ing recreation programs for the benefit of 37 cities and towns 
and a population of 1 ,984,940 within the district 

Under its jurisdiction are nearly 1 5,000 acres of parkland, 
including five major reservations and 1 7 miles of beaches, 26 
skating rinks, 1 9 swimming pools, three 1 8-hole golf courses, 
three harbor islands, the Charles, Mystic and Neponset rivers 
within the District, 1 68 miles of roadway and a wide variety of 
other recreation facilities and parks. 

Its Recreation Services Section develops, schedules and 
oversees recreational use of facilities, such as rinks, pools, 
Hatch Shell, stadiums, athletic fields, golf courses, special 
events and miscellaneous recreational activity. 

The division also operates locks and drawbridges and has 
administrative and maintenance responsibility for the Franklin 
Park and Stone zoological parks 



Its broad responsibility for law enforcement at parklands. 
waterways, harbor islands and roadways requires highly diver- 
sified functions and equipment. Daily use of a K-9 unit, detec- 
tives, narcotics officers, mounted police and boat officers ena- 
bles the force to patrol a widespread and diversified 
environment. Patrol officers with specialized capabilities, such 
as scuba diving and bomb disposal, are often called from their 
regular duties to perform these hazardous functions Special 
equipment, such as breathalyzers, radar, underwater com- 
munications and police boats are used regularly by MDC 
officers 

A Traffic Oriented Patrol Squad (TOPS) deals primarily with 
enforcement at high accident locations and top priority traffic 
problems. TOPS functions also as an effective mobile force for 
quick response to serious emergencies anywhere in Metropoli- 
tan Boston. Aerial surveillance of the traffic scene is in effect 
during weekday peak hours, utilizing a plane furnished by a 
local radio station. The flying policeman provides radio broad- 
casts on traffic conditions to the public and informs police 
headquarters about disabled vehicles, accidents and tieups as 
a method of expediting response and easing traffic conges- 
tion. 

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING 

Responsibility for a wide range of environmental concerns 
has been assigned to the Environmental Planning Division 
The agency administers the Federal and State Environmental 
Policy Acts for MDC. such as preparation of environmental 
impact reports and assessments and review of similar reports 
by other agencies affecting MDC facilities It also has prime 
responsibility for water and wastewater planning and program 
implementation. Other services include representing MDC on 
Federal. State and regional committees, land use planning, 
assistance on regulatory permit procedures and consultant 
contract administration and management 

The division coordinated and managed the newly-com- 
pleted wastewater study for the Eastern Massachusetts Metro- 
politan Area in conjunction with Army Corps of Engineers 
Study recommendations for pollution control facilities totaling 
$855 million are now being implemented by this division. 



POLICE 

Primary mission of the Police Division is protection of MDC 
property and people using its facilities and patrol of 1 68 miles 
of MDC roadways and 1 8 miles of the Northeast. Southeast 
and Central Artery expressways within Suffolk County, which 
are maintained by the State Department of Public Works The 
division also has full police powers in any community where 
MDC has property. 



ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Specialized services dealing with environmental problems 
affecting the air. land and water are furnished by the Environ- 
mental Quality Division Its primary functions are developing 
and managing proiects designed to protect and improve the 
environmental quality of the areas under MDC jurisdiction, 
monitoring water quality of rivers, beaches and swimming 
pools and advising MDC on matters affecting the environment 



29 



Assessments Primary Source of MDC Financing 



As a regional public agency, the Metropolitan District Com- 
mission is financed primarily by assessments on 54 communi- 
ties which are members of one or more of its three districts. 

Additional funds come from the State Highway Fund, state 
allocations for certain flood control projects and miscellaneous 
revenue such as fees, rentals, licenses, permits, fines, penal- 
ties, sales and Federal reimbursements or grants 

The operating budget and bond issues for capital construc- 
tion are subject to approval by the Governor and Legislature 

Principal financing sources for the three districts are the 
following: 



PARKS — Recreational capital construction by bond 
issues, amortized by assessments based on property tax val- 
uations of communities in .the district; maintenance of boule- 
vards and reservations and police costs by 67% from the 
State Highway Fund and 33% by member cities and towns, 
with one-third based on population and two-thirds on valua- 
tion; highway and bridge construction by legislative allocations 
from state highway bond issues. 



WATER — Charge of $240 per million gallons, with spe- 
cial provisions for communities outside the Water District. 



SEWERAGE — Debt requirements are assessed on the 
basis of total population and a "population equivalent" for- 
mula for contributing industries, commercial establishments 
and other uses, which became effective July 1, 1976. This 
replaced previous assessments based on capacity of munici- 
pal sewers connected to the MDC sewerage system. Mainte- 
nance and operation expenses are apportioned in relation to 
residential population actually served by the system and a 
"population equivalent" charge for industries, etc. This 
method was substituted July 1 , 1977 for an apportionment 
based on total population. 

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 977, the Commission 
spent $50,528,196 on maintenance and operations, an 
increase of $3,032,049 over 1976. Interest and principal 
payments on bonds issued for capital projects and water fund 
deficits amounted to $26,686,971 , a decrease of $1 25,756 
below 1 976. The combined expenditure was $77,21 5,1 67, a 
rise of $2,906,293 over the previous year. 

An additional $4,111 ,369 was expended for highway con- 
struction from state highway bond funds and for certain flood 
control projects from special authorizations, which do not 
reflect in assessments on MDC cities and towns. 

The $81 ,326,536 total represented 62% for maintenance 
and operations, 33% for MDC bonded debt and 5% for 
expenditures from state bond funds. 





EXPENDITURES 










1977 




1976 




Operations 


Debt 


Operations 


Debt 


Administration 


$ 883,078 




$ 810,777 




* Parks 


28,081,180 


$ 7,286,367 


26,567,600 


$ 7,275,634 


Sewerage 


10,619,043 


7,627,624 


10,613,821 


7,612,727 


Water 


10,944,895 


11,772,980 


9,503,949 


11,924,366 




$50,528,196 


$26,686,971 


$47,496,147 


$26,812,727 


Total 




$77,215,167 


$74,308,874 


•Includes cost of MDC Police operations. 

Note — An additional $4,1 1 1 ,369 was spent in 1977 and $3,01 4,602 In 1 976 tor highway construction projects financed by state highway bond Issues and flood 

control and other special authorizations financed by state General Fund bond issues rather than assessments on MDC cites and towns. 



30 















PRINCIPAL INCOME SOURCES 








1977 1976 






Parks 


$14,847,162 $16,767,827 


37 Cities & Towns 




Sewerage 


17,806,090 18,881,306 


43 Cities & Towns 




Water 


24,536,089 24,144,492 


32 Cities & Towns 




State 








Highway 


18,814,391 17,600,292 






Fund 








Revenue 


4,045,259 3,280,254 


Admissions. Sales, 
Fees, etc. 




Total 


$80,048,991 $80,674,171 






Note: Income figures for Parks. Sewerage and Water differ slightly from assessment table, due to various adiustments Sale of power, licenses, fees, concession 
permits, etc., do not accrue to the Commission for re-use. but rather flow directly into the appropriate fund and thereby reduces assessments against cities 
and towns. Federal reimbursements ordinarily have the same effect. 







OUTSTANDING DEBT, JUNE 30 








(In millions of dollars) 






Sewage 


'Water Parks 


Total 


1977 


$ 86.349 


$ 126.257 $ 52.941 


$ 265.547 


1976 


85.671 


130.998 50.843 


267.512 


1975 


89.993 


137.739 55.650 


283.382 


1974 


87.047 


132.646 41.481 


261.174 


1973 


91.301 


130.268 39.997 


261.566 


'Includes Water Fund deficit debt 







31 





TOTAL PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY EMPLOYEES AS OF JUNE 30 










1977 






1976 






1975 






Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Administration 


51 


- 


51 


54 


1 


55 


54 


1 


55 


Engineering 


227 


- 


227 


238 


- 


238 


258 


- 


258 


Highway Enginering 


- 


33 


33 


- 


37 


37 


- 


39 


39 


Parks & Parks Eng. 


653 


1062 


1715 


600 


1157 


1757 


684 


1120 


1804 


Police 


464 


25 


489 


475 


29 


504 


516 


26 


542 


Sewerage 


448 


- 


448 


430 


- 


430 


437 


1 


438 


Water 


488 


5 


493 


481 


10 


491 


509 


13 


522 


Total 


2331 


1125 


3456 


2278 


1234 


3512 


2458 


1200 


3658 





PERSONNEL EXPENDITURES* 






1977 


1976 


1975 


Administration 


$ 616,390 


$ 578,773 


$ 600,493 


Engineering 


3,726,966 


3,652,800 


3,622,717 


Highway Eng. 


446,073 


440,217 


478,024 


Parks & 








Parks Eng. 


12,403,196 


10,852,030 


9,829,974 


Police 


7,013,590 


8,500,170 


9,008,097 


Sewerage 


5,320,912 


4,928,592 


4,958,568 


Water 


5,186,141 


4,973,306 


5,301,464 


Total 


$34,713,268 


$33,925,888 


$33,799,337 


'Includes permanent, temporary and seasonal employees as of June 30. 







32 





TOTAL ASSESSMENTS FOR METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS FOR 1976* 






Metropolitan 


Metropolitan 


Metropolitan 




Cities and Towns 


Wafer 


Parks and Boulevards 


Sewerage System 


Total 


Arlington 


$ 476,957.04 


$ 447,070.46 


$ 398,887.21 


$ 1,322,914.71 


Ashland 






80,193.48 


80,193.48 


Bedford 






99,639.78 


99,639.78 


Belmont 


248,382.96 


318,180.48 


232,944.16 


799.507.60 


Boston 


12,888,419.04 


2,760,741.27 


5,230.848.55 


20.880.008.86 


Braintree 




403,909.32 


293,317.43 


697,226.75 


Brookline 


645,967.44 


596,850.85 


422,128.15 


1.664.946.44 


Burlington 






194,960.16 


194.960.16 


Cambridge 


99,995.76 


756,375.12 


921,335.62 


1,777,706.50 


Canton 


53,589.60 


206,932.86 


156,663.05 


417,185.51 


Chelsea 


306,371.04 


122,513.37 


206,958.57 


635,842.98 


Cohasset 




3,508.82 




3,508.82 


Dedham 




298,538.09 


217,000.21 


515,538.30 


Dover 




81,215.92 




81.215.92 


Everett 


677,613.36 


443,691.43 


336,506.90 


1.457.811.69 


Framingham 






533,223.78 


533.223.78 


Hingham 




202,524.81 


52,056.60 


254.581.41 


Hull 




82,474.53 




82.474.53 


Lexington 


392,832.96 




259,393.32 


652,226.28 


Lynn 




535,674.09 




535.674.09 


Lynnfield Water District 34,949.76 






34.949.76 


Maiden 


606,356.16 


422,176.64 


445,364.97 


1.473.897.77 


Marblehead 


210,551.52 


123,456.78 




210,551.52 


Medford 


755,648.64 


441,312.06 


484,031.01 


1.680.991.71 


Melrose 


296,015.52 


261,494.46 


255.849.06 


813.359.04 


Milton 


211,492.32 


282,158.18 


217,014.72 


710.665.22 


Nahant 


36,797.04 


41,293.32 




78.090.36 


Natick 






252.011.71 


252,011.71 


Needham 


88,181.04 


394,714.68 


239.967.69 


722.863.41 


Newton 


1,160,895.12 


955,791.12 


712.197.05 


2.828.883.29 


Norwood 


357,348.00 




256,543.03 


613.891.03 


Peabody 


102,054.24 






102.054.24 


Quincy 


956,084.16 


727,324.52 


735.824.36 


2,419.23304 


Randolph 






232.792.70 


232.792 70 


Reading 






188.197.53 


188.197 53 


Revere 


374,610.24 


313,291.77 


327,956.23 


1.015.858.24 


Saugus 


234,918.00 


243.621.44 




478.539 44 


Somerville 


803,154.96 


450.465.38 


647.377.43 


1.900.997.77 


Stoneham 


275,654.88 


197,762.11 


171,262.13 


644.679 12 


Stoughton 






204,248.49 


204.24849 


Swampscott 


159.193.68 


87.164.87 




246.358 55 


Wakefield 


207,604.80 


234,010.12 


206.818 63 


648.433 55 


Walpole 






215.107.11 


215.107.11 


Waltham 


979,209.84 


589.133.75 


501.151.48 


2.069.495.07 


Watertown 


422,033.28 


307,304.29 


295.101 73 


1.024.439.30 


Wellesley 




369.551.97 


211.203.09 


580.75506 


Weston 


102,205.92 


205.512.28 




307.718 20 


Westwood 




185,561.95 


111.345.76 


296.907 71 


Weymouth 




480.516.61 


451.546.25 


932.062 86 


Wilmington 






147.029 03 


147.02903 


Winchester 


95.305.44 


250.880.48 


189.448 98 


535.634 90 


Winthrop 


174,988.32 


145.918.74 


161.694 85 


482.601 91 


Woburn 






V948 10 


308.948 10 


$24,435,382.08 


$14,847,162.16 


806.090.09 




•Note: Assessments for 1976 were received tn fiscal 1977 









< 



METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 
District Membership 

Parks - Water - Sewerage 

Total Members -54 

Member of all three MDC districts 

Member of two districts 
Q Member of one district 
P Parks - 37 
W Water - 34 
S Sewerage - 43 




Note: Woburn and Wellesley are new members of the Water District but are not being supplied pending 
completion of connections.